Interaction of gut microbiota with bile acid metabolism and its influence on disease states
A human fecal isolate, characterized by morphological, physiological and biochemical data as a strain of Peptostreptococcus roductus, was shown to contain NAD-dependent 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and a NADP-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. All enzyme activities could be demonstrated in crude extracts and in membrane fractions. The 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were synthesized constitutively. Specific enzymatic activities were significantly reduced when bacteria were grown in the presence of 3-keto bile acids, while other bile acids were ineffective. For the 3 alpha (3 beta)-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, a pH optimum of 8.5 (9.5) and a molecular weight of 95,000 (132,000) was estimated. 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were heat-sensitive (about 75% inactivation at 50 degrees C for 10 min). The 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was already present in uninduced cells, but specific activity could be enhanced up to more than 2.5-fold when bacteria were grown in the presence of 7-keto bile acids. Disubstituted bile acids were more effective than trisubstituted ones, ursodeoxycholic acid was ineffective as an inducer. A pH optimum of 10.0 and a molecular weight of about 82,000 were shown for the 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme preparation reduced the 7-keto group of corresponding bile acids. Again the affinities of disubstituted bile acids for the enzyme were higher than those of the trisubstituted bile acids, but no significant differences between conjugated and free bile acids were observed. The 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was heat-sensitive (72% inactivation at 50 degrees C for 10 min), but was detectable at 4 degrees C for at least 48 h.