Characterization of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from radish and broccoli sprouts that exhibited a KG+ phenotype, lack of virulence and absence of a capsule

@article{Kawanishi2007CharacterizationOL,
  title={Characterization of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from radish and broccoli sprouts that exhibited a KG+ phenotype, lack of virulence and absence of a capsule},
  author={Michiko Kawanishi and T. Yoshida and Mayumi Kijima and Kazuhiro Yagyu and Tetsuro Nakai and S Okada and Akihito Endo and Masaru Murakami and Shin Suzuki and H. Morita},
  journal={Letters in Applied Microbiology},
  year={2007},
  volume={44}
}
Aims:  To identify Lactococcus garvieae isolates from radish and broccoli sprouts and compare them with virulent and less virulent mutant strains obtained from yellowtails with regard to KG phenotype, presence of a capsule and virulence towards yellowtails and mice. 

Genome Sequences of Lactococcus garvieae TB25, Isolated from Italian Cheese, and Lactococcus garvieae LG9, Isolated from Italian Rainbow Trout

TLDR
The first report of a genome sequence of L. garvieae TB25 and LG9, isolated from a dairy source and rainbow trout, is presented.

Genome Sequence of Lactococcus garvieae UNIUD074, Isolated in Italy from a Lactococcosis Outbreak

TLDR
The draft genome sequence of the L. garvieae strain UNIUD074 is presented and it is shown that this bacterium is a potential zoonotic microorganism since it is known to cause several opportunistic human infections.

Genome Sequences of Two Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Meat

TLDR
The first report of genome sequences of L. garvieae I113 and Tac2 strains isolated from a meat source are presented, marking a new step in the understanding of this important fish pathogen.

Detection of Haemolysin Genes as Genetic Determinants of Virulence in Lactococcus garvieae

TLDR
Lactococcus garvieae (junior syn. Enterococcus seriolacida) is a common Gram-positive pathogen of aquatic species and is a potential zoonotic pathogen.

Isolation of Lactococcus garvieae Strain TRF1 from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

TLDR
It is suggested that strain TRF1 may not be pathogenic, since this gene cluster is absent in several non-pathogenic strains of L. garvieae, and this hypothesis will have to be tested in an animal model.

A genetic comparison of pig, cow and trout isolates of Lactococcus garvieae by PFGE analysis

TLDR
Aims: genetic comparison of Lactococcus garvieae isolated from mammals and fish to compare with known isolates from animals and fish.

Detection of virulence-related genes in Lactococcus garvieae and their expression in response to different conditions

TLDR
A virulence potential in some L. garvieae strains that can be exploited for survival in the human gastrointestinal tract is suggested, using both post-genomic and genotypic analysis.

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Lactococcus garvieae Strains Isolated from Different Sources Reveals Candidate Virulence Genes

TLDR
A comparative genomic analysis of fish and human isolates of L. garvieae revealed the specific two and four adhesin genes, respectively, indicating that these adhesion proteins may be involved in the host specificity differences of the pathogen.

LACTOCOCCUS GARVIEAE AND MORGANELLA MORGANII: TWO BACTERIAL MODELS TO STUDY QUALITY AND SAFETY OF FISH PRODUCTS

TLDR
This PhD thesis research project aims to improve the current systems of management and control of food safety, focusing the attention on the study of two contaminating emerging pathogens in fish products: Lactococcus garvieae and Morganella morganii, the most active histamine-producing species.

Lactococcus garvieae: an emerging bacterial pathogen of fish.

TLDR
This review aims to present the latest research on L. garvieae, with specific focus on pathogenesis, virulence factors, risks associated with chemotherapeutic administration and possible control options.

References

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Drug resistance and pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis patterns of Lactococcus garvieae isolates from cultured Seriola (yellowtail, amberjack and kingfish) in Japan

Aims:  To investigate the existing antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics of Lactococcus garvieae isolates from cultured Seriola in Japan.

A cell capsule with possible involvement in resistance to opsonophagocytosis in Enterococcus seriolicida isolated from yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata

TLDR
The capsule of KGcells may be involved in resistance to opsonophagocytosis by head kidney phagocytes of yellowtall Seriola quinqueradiata.

A virulent bacteriophage of Lactococcus garvieae (formerly Enterococcus seriolicida) isolated from yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata.

TLDR
Though an infection experiment of young yellowtail revealed that the 2 phage-insensitive L. garvieae stralns were less virulent than 2phage-sensitive strains, there was no correlation between phage sensitivity and antigenic variation.

Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization ofLactococcus garvieae Isolated in Spain from Lactococcosis Outbreaks and Comparison with Isolates of Other Countries and Sources

TLDR
Examination of biotype and PFGE results indicated that the trout lactococcosis outbreaks in Spain and Portugal and those in France and Italy were produced by genetically unrelated clones.

Enterococcus seriolicida Is a Junior Synonym of Lactococcus garvieae, a Causative Agent of Septicemia and Meningoencephalitis in Fish

TLDR
It is shown that Enterococcus seriolicida and Lactococcus garvieae are synonyms, describing a single bacterial species, which must be considered as a major pathogen of freshwater and salt water fish with a world-wide distribution.

Phage Typing of Lactococcus garvieae (Formerly Enterococcus seriolicida) a Pathogen of Cultured Yellowtail.

TLDR
The disease caused by Enterococcus seriolicida has been responsible for significant losses in culture industry of yel lowtail Seriola quinqueradiata in Japan and its epidemiological utility in the medical field is well documented.

Identification of Lactococcus garvieae by PCR.

TLDR
The PCR assay that was developed is the only practical test besides the clindamycin test which can specifically identify the zoonotic agent L. garvieae and which can differentiate it from L. lactis.

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of atypical Lactococcus garvieae strains isolated from water buffalos with subclinical mastitis and confirmation of L. garvieae as a senior subjective synonym of Enterococcus seriolicida.

TLDR
The results of DNA relatedness studies performed by using the hydroxyapatite method indicated that all of the mastitis isolates were related to the type strain of L. garvieae at the species level, despite the fact that they exhibited several uncommon phenotypic characteristics.

The protective immune response of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata to the bacterial fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae.

TLDR
The results suggested that a capsule in KG- phenotype cells apparently affects their immunogenicity, but the antigens which conferred protection to fish against lactococcal infection may be located on the surface of KG+ phenotype cells, and are not cell capsules inKG- phenotypic cells.

Enterococcus seriolicida sp. nov., a fish pathogen.

TLDR
The properties and taxonomic position of bacterial strains isolated from diseased specimens of cultured yellowtail and eels were examined and the name Enterococcus seriolicida is proposed because the value for DNA-DNA hybridization was sufficiently low to warrant distinguishing this species from reported species.