Rare allele of HvLox-1 associated with lipoxygenase activity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Previously, we reported that 2(E)-nonenal, having a low flavor threshold (0.1 ppb) and known as the major contributor to a cardboard flavor (stale flavor) in stored beer, is produced by lipoxygenase-1 and a newly found factor named 9-fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase-like (9-HPL-like) activity in malt. To assess the involvement of 9-HPL-like activity in beer staling, we compared the values of the wort nonenal potential, an index for predicting the staleness of beer, with the lipoxygenase and 9-HPL-like activity of 20 commercial malts. There was a significant correlation between the malt 9-HPL-like activity and the values of wort nonenal potential (r=0.53, P<0.05), while the correlation between malt lipoxygenase activity and the wort nonenal potential was statistically insignificant. Analysis of the partially purified 9-HPL-like activity from embryos of germinating barley seeds indicated that 9-HPL-like activity consisted of fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase and 3Z:2E isomerase.