Characterization, Recovery Opportunities, and Valuation of Metals in Municipal Sludges from U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants Nationwide.

@article{Westerhoff2015CharacterizationRO,
  title={Characterization, Recovery Opportunities, and Valuation of Metals in Municipal Sludges from U.S. Wastewater Treatment Plants Nationwide.},
  author={Paul Westerhoff and Sungyun Lee and Yu Kyung Yang and Gwyneth W. Gordon and Kiril D Hristovski and Rolf U. Halden and Pierre Herckes},
  journal={Environmental science & technology},
  year={2015},
  volume={49 16},
  pages={9479-88}
}
U.S. sewage sludges were analyzed for 58 regulated and nonregulated elements by ICP-MS and electron microscopy to explore opportunities for removal and recovery. Sludge/water distribution coefficients (KD, L/kg dry weight) spanned 5 orders of magnitude, indicating significant metal accumulation in biosolids. Rare-earth elements and minor metals (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) detected in sludges showed enrichment factors (EFs) near unity, suggesting dust or soils as… CONTINUE READING
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