Characteristics of triple and quadruple toe-loops performed during the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics.

  title={Characteristics of triple and quadruple toe-loops performed during the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics.},
  author={Deborah L. King and Sarah L. Smith and Brian K Higginson and Barry Muncasy and Gary Scheirman},
  journal={Sports biomechanics},
  volume={3 1},
The purpose of this study was to compare triple (T) and quadruple (Q) toe-loop figure skating jumps and quantify basic characteristics of these jumps to provide information to coaches that will assist them in teaching quadruple toe-loops to elite figure skaters. High-speed video was taken during men's practice and competition sessions at the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Olympics; three-dimensional analyses of selected triple and quadruple jumps were completed. The most significant difference… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Performing triple and quadruple figure skating jumps: implications for training.
  • D. King
  • Education
    Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquee
  • 2005
The purpose of this paper is to review the biomechanics of triple and quadruple figure skating jumps, focusing on information that has implications for strength and conditioning programs. At a
For a high final score figure skaters need quadruple jumps (QJ) with perfect execution. QJ are very difficult and have a high risk of falling. Therefore the purpose of this study was to identify
Comparison of split double and triple twists in pair figure skating
Results were similar to observations of jumps in singles skating for which the extra rotation is typically due to an increase in rotational velocity; increases in flight time come primarily from delayed landings as opposed to additional height during flight.
Kinematic Analysis of Figure Skating Jump by Using Wearable Inertial Measurement Units
Characteristics of figure skating jumps using wearable sensors revealed that in order to perform successfully landed jumps, it was crucial that the skater improved the control of preparation for flight at take-off and during flight.
Determinant analysis and developing evaluation indicators of grade of execution score of double axel jump in figure skating
This work analysed the horizontal distance, vertical height, and landing speed of double axel jumps in the Ladies' Short Program at the 2019 World Championships and proposed two new evaluation indicators which are highly correlated with the two components and easy to interpret.
The Effects of Velocity of Propulsion on the Degree of Hardship Performance during a Figure Skating
K. S. YOO, The Effects of Velocity of Propulsion on the Degree of Hardship Performance during a Figure Skating. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 165-172, 2007. The purpose of
Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete
The ‘live high–train low’ model of altitude training can help athletes in endurance events to maximize performance and the use of supplemental O2 on the sideline or in between heats to facilitate recovery is recommended.
Biomechanics of rock climbing technique
Rock climbing routes have become increasingly difficult over the last twenty years. In rock climbing manuals and articles, specific techniques for making arm movements on steep, overhanging routes
Comparison of two variants of a kata technique (unsu): the neuromechanical point of view.
The proposed neuromechanical analysis, finalized to correlate technique features with the core performance indicators, is new in the field and is a promising tool to perform further analyses.
Quadruple jumps (QJ) have conquered the competitions in figure skating. In men's competitions three or four different QJ is standard for top skaters. The key task of the study with 17 excellently


A Kinematic Comparison of Single, Double, and Triple Axels
To be competitive internationally, figure skaters today must perform complex athletic skills such as triple axels. However, few skaters are executing such jumps consistently. In this study, a 3D
Takeoff Characteristics of Single and Double Axel Figure Skating Jumps
Takeoff kinematics of axel jumps were determined from a spatial analysis of singles and doubles performed by 16 figure skaters. The takeoff was divided into glide, transition, and pivot phases.
The interpretation of relative momentum data to assess the contribution of the free limbs to the generation of vertical velocity in sports activities.
The proposed interpretation enabled sensible estimations to be made of the contribution of the arms to jumping performance and was applied to a counter-movement vertical jump and a running stride.
Kinematics of human motion
This work describes how to study human body position and displacement without regard to time, velocity or acceleration. It goes on to "add" these variables in simple and complex biokinematic chains
Fitting of Mathematical Functions to Biomechanical Data
  • K. M. Jackson
  • Engineering
    IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
  • 1979
A method is presented to decide the order a polynomial or Fourier series best represents a set of biomechanical data points, with regard to the calculation of the first and second derivatives of the
How'd they do that quad toe-loop Part 1
  • Skating Magazine, April,
  • 2002
Kinematics of Human Motion (pp. 42-52)
  • Human Kinetics
  • 1998
Unpublished data. Recording of quadruple jump attempts at men's practice and competition sessions of
  • Unpublished data. Recording of quadruple jump attempts at men's practice and competition sessions of
  • 2000