The ability of S-100 proteins to inhibit the assembly of brain microtubule proteins (MTPs) in the presence of microM levels of Ca2+ increases as a function of pH. This seems to be due to an increasingly larger inhibitory effect of S-100 on the nucleation and, probably, on the elongation of microtubules (MTs) as the pH raises. In the presence of microM Ca2+ levels, the ability of S-100 to disassemble MTs also increases linearly with the pH, suggesting that the larger inhibitory effect of S-100 on MTP assembly at alkaline than at acidic pH may depend on both a decrease in the assembly rate and an increase in the disassembly rate. Also, S-100 inhibits the assembly of phosphocellulose-purified tubulin to a larger and larger extent as the pH raises. S-100 brings about its effect on MT assembly-disassembly probably by sequestering soluble tubulin, though additional mechanisms cannot be excluded. The present data are briefly discussed in relation to the role attributed to changes in intracellular pH in the regulation of the state of assembly of cytoplasmic MTs.