OBJECTIVES To study the characteristics and the predictors of survival observed in our pediatric live-donor renal transplant recipients with an allograft that functioned for more than 10 yr. METHODS One hundred fifteen children underwent renal transplantation between 1976 and 1995. Of these, 30 had functioning allografts for more than 10 yr (range, 11-18). The patients included 18 males and 12 females, with a mean age at transplantation of 13 yr (range, 5-18). Characteristics of the patients, data on graft survival, and determinants of outcome were obtained by reviewing all medical charts. RESULTS At most recent follow-up (January 2005), the mean daily dose of azathioprine was 1.2 mg/kg (range, 1-2) and that of prednisone was 0.16 mg/kg (range, 0.1-0.2). Mean creatinine clearance was 72 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (range, 45-112). Acute rejection occurred in 14 (47%) patients. Seven patients had one episode, five had two episodes, and two had three episodes of acute rejection. Three patients (10%) developed malignancy. A substantial proportion of patients (44%) were short, with a height standard deviation score (SDS) less than -1.88, which is below the third percentile for age and gender. One quarter of the patients, more commonly the females, were obese. Other complications included osteoporosis in 16 (53%) patients, avascular bone necrosis in four (13%), post-transplantation diabetes mellitus in three (10%), and hypertension in 18 (60%). Twelve (40%) patients were married and 27% had children post-transplantation. The independent determinants of long-term graft survival were acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension. CONCLUSION Despite good renal function, long-term pediatric renal transplant survivors are at risk of significant morbidity. The determinants of long-term graft survival are acute rejection and post-transplant hypertension.