To clarify the effects of tissue and structure of bamboo on its bending properties and set by cooling (bent at 90°C and cooled to 20°C with bending), the effects of set in bast-fiber-rich (Bfib) and parenchyma-cell-rich (Bpar) specimens were investigated with regard to their dynamic viscoelastic properties, chemical composition, and recovery from deformation with time. The results are summarized as follows: (1) while no clear effect of the proportion of parenchyma cells and bast fibers on residual set immediately after cooling was found, the relative recovery from the deformation with time for Bfib was larger than that for Bpar. (2) Slightly higher lignin content and a-cellulose were seen in Bfib than in Bpar. (3) The peak temperature of loss modulus (E″) found for Bpar, which was attributable to micro-Brownian motion of lignin, was obviously lower than that for Bfib. This was considered to be due to differences in the degree of condensation of lignin or higher-order structure. From these results, it was deduced that the bastfiber-rich specimen, which showed a higher peak temperature regarding thermal softening of lignin allowing the induction of insufficient thermal-softening in the range of 20° to 90°C, caused a larger recovery from deformation with time.