In the rat hepatocyte, whether freshly separated or in primary culture, we do not find L-glutamine entry by Systems A and ASC as seen in cells previously studied. Instead the mediated entry of glutamine appears to occur exclusively by a Na+-dependent system ("N") apparently specific to amino acid amides and L-histidine; however, a portion of asparagine uptake occurs by System A. The simplest evidence for the separateness of the added system is the failure of model substrates for System A (e.g. N-methylalanine) to inhibit glutamine uptake significantly, and the failure of glutamine to inhibit the uptake of L-cysteine, model substrate for System ASC, at least in this cell. As is the case for cysteine, glutamine inhibits transport by System A (although not competitively), even though showing no transport by that system. Our finding confirms an earlier inference that glutamine uptake by this cell may follow a route not taken by alanine or serine, and explains the apparently erroneous companion inference that glutamine also shares a route with these two amino acids. Its uptake has now been characterized to show a series of differences from Systems A and ASC. Especially significant in view of the importance of glutamine metabolism are an insensitivity of the new system to stimulation by either insulin or glucagon, and its distinct enhancement (not as large as that for System A) on starvation of the cells with respect to amino acids. Hence, a second system has been found to show adaptive regulation.