Characteristics of a manta ray Manta alfredi population off Maui, Hawaii, and implications for management

Abstract

Late maturity, few offspring and a residential nature are typical characteristics of Manta alfredi that make this species vulnerable to localized anthropogenic threats. Improving its life history information is crucial for successful management. A total of 229 surveys was conducted from 2005 to 2009 at a manta ray aggregation site off Maui, Hawaii, to… (More)

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