Forty light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs), ninety two diesel trucks (DTs), and twenty rural vehicles (RVs) were measured in Beijing, Xi’an, and Shenzhen in China using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). We obtained gaseous emission factors (EFs) for LDGVs of different emission control technologies (including Euro 0, Euro I, Euro II, Euro III and Euro IV), and EFs of fine particular matter (PM2.5) and gaseous pollutants for diesel trucks of different emission control technologies (including Euro 0, Euro I, Euro II, and Euro III) under many real-world driving conditions. The results show that LDGVs with more advanced technologies have lower CO, HC and NOx EFs. Compared to the Euro 0 LDGVs, Euro IV LDGVs can reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions by more than 90%. The PM2.5 emissions of Euro III DTs are reduced by more than 80% compared to Euro I DTs, but no significant reduction in NOx EF is observed between Euro III and Euro I diesel trucks. RVs’ emissions could be significant because of their high population and poor emission control technologies, so more attention should be paid to control their emissions.