Heart Disease and Left Ventricular Rotation – A Systematic Review and Quantitative Summary
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES There have been very few pathophysiologic studies on isolated diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that the characteristics of isolated diastolic dysfunction would be located, on the clinical continuum, between those of a normal heart and diastolic heart failure. SUBJECTS AND METHODS We enrolled 102 subjects who had no history of overt symptoms of heart failure and who had a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 50%. They were examined for myocardial deformation and rotation using the two-dimensional speckle tracking image (2D-STI) technique. RESULTS The circumferential strains and radial strain at the apical level (RS(apex)) were related to the ratio of the transmitral early peak velocity over the early diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E/E'). After adjustment for age, the RS(apex) showed a positive relationship with the E/E' ratio; whereas, the circumferential strains did not. Instead, the circumferential strains demonstrated a significant correlation with age. Basal rotation and left ventricular (LV) torsion were also related to age, but had no relationship with the E/E' ratio. However, as the E/E' ratio value increased, systolic mitral annular velocity decreased. CONCLUSION Except for the RS(apex), LV myocardial deformation and rotation did not vary with the degree of E/E' ratio elevation when there was no associated diastolic heart failure. Additionally, in clinical situations such as isolated diastolic dysfunction, the advancement of age has a relatively greater influence on characteristics of LV myocardial deformation and rotation rather than on the E/E' ratio.