Chapter 8 – Mammalian Sleep

@inproceedings{Zepelin2005Chapter8,
  title={Chapter 8 – Mammalian Sleep},
  author={Harold Zepelin and Jerome M. Siegel and Irene Tobler},
  year={2005}
}
Sleep in a comparative context: Investigating how human sleep differs from sleep in other primates.
  • C. Nunn, D. Samson
  • Biology, Psychology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2018
TLDR
It is proposed that the risks and opportunity costs of sleep are responsible for shorter sleep durations in humans, with risks arising from terrestrial sleep involving threats from predators and conspecifics, and opportunity Costs because time spent sleeping could be used for learning, creating material objects, and socializing.
Phylogenetic Analysis of The Ecology and Evolution of Mammalian Sleep
TLDR
It is found that basal metabolic rate correlates negatively rather than positively with sleep quotas, and that neither adult nor neonatal brain mass correlates positively with REM or NREM sleep times, which contradict hypotheses that invoke energy conservation, cognition, and development as drivers of sleep variation.
Sleep intensity and the evolution of human cognition
TLDR
It is proposed that humans are more efficient in their sleep patterns than are other primates, and that human sleep is shorter, deeper, and exhibits a higher proportion of REM than expected.
The cost of deep sleep: Environmental influences on sleep regulation are greater for diurnal lemurs.
TLDR
It is proposed that sleeping site security was an essential component of sleep regulation throughout primate evolution and may have been an important factor associated with the evolution of sleep in early and later hominins.
Sleeping outside the box: electroencephalographic measures of sleep in sloths inhabiting a rainforest
TLDR
The first electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of sleep on unrestricted animals in the wild using a recently developed miniaturized EEG recorder are performed, and it is found that brown-throated three-toed sloths inhabiting the canopy of a tropical rainforest only sleep 9.63 h d−1, over 6 H less than previously reported in captivity.
A phylogenetic analysis of the correlates of sleep in birds
TLDR
The first quantitative analysis of sleep in a non‐mammalian taxon (birds) focusing on the daily amount of time spent in slow‐wave sleep (SWS) and rapid‐eye movement (REM) sleep as determined by electrophysiological methods suggests that further insight into the function of sleep across the animal kingdom may require an expansion of sleep research beyond the current mammalian paradigm.
Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep
The functions of mammalian sleep remain unclear. Most theories suggest a role for non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in energy conservation and in nervous system recuperation. Theories of REM sleep
Sleep: Evolutionary and Adaptive Changes in Birds and Mammals
TLDR
This chapter discusses the sleeping patterns, sleep strategies, and sleep consolidations across phylogeny and aging, which are essential for the current challenges in their society, where the authors experience poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep and they wake up tired almost every day.
Why REM Sleep is Reduced in Aquatic and Semi-aquatic Mammals? A Discussion of the Possible Theories
TLDR
A few proposed theories to explain the reduction in REM sleep in aquatic mammals are critically reviewed and it is suggested that aquatic and semi-aquatic species do not needREM sleep in low weightless environments due to the effect of gravity on sleep.
Sleep alterations in mammals: Did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?
TLDR
The possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals is discussed, and a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water is found.
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References

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Sleep in mammals
Sleep in Mammals : Ecological and Constitutional Correlates
TLDR
The interrelationships between sleep, ecological, and constitutional variables were assessed statistically for 39 mammalian species and found that both constitutional and ecological influences are important predictors of the amount and type of sleep obtained by mammals.
Animal sleep: A review of sleep duration across phylogeny
Bioenergetic functions of sleep and activity rhythms and their possible relevance to aging.
TLDR
It is proposed that sleep constitutes a period of dormancy in which energy is conserved to partially offset the increased energy demands of homeothermy and disruptions of circadian rhythms of sleep and wakefulness in humans produce impairments in mood and performance independent of total amounts of sleep obtained.
The REM Sleep-Memory Consolidation Hypothesis
TLDR
The evidence for the hypothesis that REM (rapid eye movement) sleep has an important role in memory consolidation is reviewed and found to be weak and contradictory.
A life-sustaining function for REM sleep: A theory
  • R. Vertes
  • Psychology, Biology
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 1987
Regulation of physiological functions during sleep in mammals
TLDR
This article in honor of W.R. Hess approaches from a theoretical point of view the problem of physiological regulations during sleep in mammals under the guidance of the unifying concept of regulation.
Are ground squirrels sleep deprived during hibernation?
TLDR
It is hypothesized that low body temperatures during hibernation are incompatible with the restorative function of sleep as reflected in cortical slow-wave activity and animals must incur the energetic costs of periodic arousals from hibernation to receive the restrative benefits of euthermic slow- wave sleep.
The Echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus Combines REM and Non-REM Aspects in a Single Sleep State: Implications for the Evolution of Sleep
TLDR
The results suggest that REM and non-REM sleep evolved as a differentiation of a single, phylogenetically older sleep state, and it is hypothesized that the physiological changes that occur during postnatal sleep development parallel certain aspects of the changes that have occurred during the evolution of sleep–waking states in mammals.
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