Chapter 8 – Mammalian Sleep

  title={Chapter 8 – Mammalian Sleep},
  author={Harold Zepelin and Jerome M. Siegel and Irene Tobler},

Sleep in a comparative context: Investigating how human sleep differs from sleep in other primates.

  • C. NunnD. Samson
  • Biology, Psychology
    American journal of physical anthropology
  • 2018
It is proposed that the risks and opportunity costs of sleep are responsible for shorter sleep durations in humans, with risks arising from terrestrial sleep involving threats from predators and conspecifics, and opportunity Costs because time spent sleeping could be used for learning, creating material objects, and socializing.

Sleep intensity and the evolution of human cognition

It is proposed that humans are more efficient in their sleep patterns than are other primates, and that human sleep is shorter, deeper, and exhibits a higher proportion of REM than expected.

The cost of deep sleep: Environmental influences on sleep regulation are greater for diurnal lemurs.

It is proposed that sleeping site security was an essential component of sleep regulation throughout primate evolution and may have been an important factor associated with the evolution of sleep in early and later hominins.

Sleeping outside the box: electroencephalographic measures of sleep in sloths inhabiting a rainforest

The first electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of sleep on unrestricted animals in the wild using a recently developed miniaturized EEG recorder are performed, and it is found that brown-throated three-toed sloths inhabiting the canopy of a tropical rainforest only sleep 9.63 h d−1, over 6 H less than previously reported in captivity.

Energetic constraints, not predation, influence the evolution of sleep patterning in mammals.

Neither sleep-cycle length nor phasing of sleep was significantly associated with three different measures of predation risk, undermining the idea that they represent anti-predator adaptations.

A phylogenetic analysis of the correlates of sleep in birds

The first quantitative analysis of sleep in a non‐mammalian taxon (birds) focusing on the daily amount of time spent in slow‐wave sleep (SWS) and rapid‐eye movement (REM) sleep as determined by electrophysiological methods suggests that further insight into the function of sleep across the animal kingdom may require an expansion of sleep research beyond the current mammalian paradigm.

Clues to the functions of mammalian sleep

The functions of mammalian sleep remain unclear. Most theories suggest a role for non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in energy conservation and in nervous system recuperation. Theories of REM sleep

Sleep: Evolutionary and Adaptive Changes in Birds and Mammals

This chapter discusses the sleeping patterns, sleep strategies, and sleep consolidations across phylogeny and aging, which are essential for the current challenges in their society, where the authors experience poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep and they wake up tired almost every day.

Sleep alterations in mammals: Did aquatic conditions inhibit rapid eye movement sleep?

The possibility of the intrinsic role of aquatic conditions in the elimination of REM sleep in the aquatic mammals is discussed, and a significant negative correlation between REM sleep and the adaptation of the organism to live on land or in water is found.

The Defensive Activation Theory: REM Sleep as a Mechanism to Prevent Takeover of the Visual Cortex

It is hypothesized that the circuitry underlying REM sleep serves to amplify the visual system’s activity periodically throughout the night, allowing it to defend its territory against takeover from other senses.



The ontogeny of mammalian sleep: a reappraisal of alternative hypotheses

Critical review of this evidence indicates that REM sleep may not be present at birth in newborn altricial mammals; rather, it appears that all mammals early in development exhibit spontaneous, dissociated activity that progressively becomes organized into the distinct states of REM and non‐rapid eye movement sleep.

Sleep in mammals

Sleep in Mammals : Ecological and Constitutional Correlates

The interrelationships between sleep, ecological, and constitutional variables were assessed statistically for 39 mammalian species and found that both constitutional and ecological influences are important predictors of the amount and type of sleep obtained by mammals.

Animal sleep: A review of sleep duration across phylogeny

Bioenergetic functions of sleep and activity rhythms and their possible relevance to aging.

It is proposed that sleep constitutes a period of dormancy in which energy is conserved to partially offset the increased energy demands of homeothermy and disruptions of circadian rhythms of sleep and wakefulness in humans produce impairments in mood and performance independent of total amounts of sleep obtained.

The REM Sleep-Memory Consolidation Hypothesis

The evidence for the hypothesis that REM (rapid eye movement) sleep has an important role in memory consolidation is reviewed and found to be weak and contradictory.

A life-sustaining function for REM sleep: A theory

  • R. Vertes
  • Psychology, Biology
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
  • 1987

Regulation of physiological functions during sleep in mammals

This article in honor of W.R. Hess approaches from a theoretical point of view the problem of physiological regulations during sleep in mammals under the guidance of the unifying concept of regulation.