Chapter 3 – Cellular Components of Nervous Tissue

  title={Chapter 3 – Cellular Components of Nervous Tissue},
  author={Patrick R. Hof and Grahame J Kidd and Javier DeFelipe and J. S. De Vellis and Miguel A. Gama Sosa and Gregory A Elder and Bruce D Trapp},
Several types of cellular elements are integrated to constitute normally functioning brain tissue. The neuron is the communicating cell, and many neuronal subtypes are connected to one another via complex circuitries, usually involving multiple synaptic connections. Neuronal physiology is supported andmaintained by neuroglial cells, which have highly diverse and incompletely understood functions. These include myelination, secretion of trophic factors, maintenance of the extracellular milieu… Expand
Long-term depression induced by endogenous cannabinoids produces neuroprotection via astroglial CB1R after stroke in rodents
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  • Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
  • 2019
An acute elevation of extracellular eCB following eCB clearance inhibition results in neuroprotection through long-term depression induction after sequential activation of astroglial CB1R and postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Expand
Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors produce rapid anti-anxiety responses through amygdala long-term depression in male rodents
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Inosine to increase serum and cerebrospinal fluid urate in Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial.
Inosine was generally safe, tolerable, and effective in raising serum and cerebrospinal fluid urate levels in early PD and support advancing to more definitive development of inosine as a potential disease-modifying therapy for PD. Expand
Arquitectura subcelular del sistema endocannabinoide en el núcleo ventromedial del hipotálamo de ratón
El sistema endocannabinoide (eCB) es un complejo sistema endogeno de senalizacion, que participa en la modulacion de la transmision sinaptica en multiples circuitos cerebrales, incluyendo los queExpand
Radiofrequency-Radiation Exposure Does Not Induce Detectable Leakage of Albumin Across the Blood-Brain Barrier
A confirmation study designed to determine whether the BBB is altered in rats exposed in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transmission line cell to 915 MHz energy at parameters similar to those in the Lund University studies. Expand


Changing Face of Microglia
Experimental studies support the idea that microglia have a role in the maintenance of synaptic integrity, and analogous to electricians, they are capable of removing defunct axon terminals, thereby helping neuronal connections to stay intact. Expand
Molecular biology of the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers: similarities and differences
  • Z. Redzic
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
  • 2010
A number of specific transport proteins are expressed in brain capillary endothelial cells and CP epithelial cells that provide transport of nutrients and ions into the CNS and removal of waste products and ions from the brain extracellular fluids. Expand
Looking at the blood–brain barrier: Molecular anatomy and possible investigation approaches
In this review, the unique properties of brain microvascular endothelial cells and intercellular junctions are examined and some of the experimental approaches that can be used to monitor BBB properties and function in a variety of conditions and have allowed recent advances in BBB knowledge are summarized. Expand
Myelination and the trophic support of long axons
  • K. Nave
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature Reviews Neuroscience
  • 2010
It is proposed that ensheathing glia provide trophic support to axons that are metabolically isolated, and that myelin itself might cause such isolation. Expand
Axon-glial signaling and the glial support of axon function.
Mutations in the mouse reveal that axonal support by oligodendrocytes is independent of myelin assembly, suggesting that loss of glial support causes progressive axon degeneration and possibly local inflammation, both of which are likely to contribute to a variety of neuronal diseases in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Expand
Brain microvascular pericytes in health and disease
Disclosure of pericytes’ role in the pathophysiology of CNS diseases may yield exciting developments and novel treatments as well as lead to new treatments. Expand
Evolution of a neuroprotective function of central nervous system myelin
Mice genetically engineered to express P0 instead of PLP in CNS myelin had a normal lifespan and no axonal degeneration, supporting the hypothesis that the P0–PLP shift during vertebrate evolution provided a vital neuroprotective function to myelin-forming CNS glia. Expand
Expanding the definition of the blood-brain barrier to protein.
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1981
Evidence is provided to indicate that the capillary endothelium of the mouse brain pinocytosis the enzymatic tracer horseradish peroxidase (EC from cerebral blood under normal conditions. Expand
The neurovascular unit in brain function and disease
Recently findings have emphasized the intricate interplay between both excitatory and inhibitory neurons in neurovascular coupling, together with an intermediary role of astrocytes, which are ideally positioned between neurons and microvessels. Expand
Electrical Coupling and Neuronal Synchronization in the Mammalian Brain
The many subtleties of transmission mediated by gap junctions and the mechanisms whereby these junctions contribute to synchronous firing are reviewed. Expand