• Corpus ID: 4781257

Chapter 2 Afterload

  title={Chapter 2 Afterload},
  author={Amanda R. Vest and Frederick A. Heupler},
As discussed in Chap. 1 regarding preload, cardiac afterload is also a semiquantitative composite assessment of a determinant of cardiac output. The four major determinants of cardiac output are cardiac preload, myocardial contractility, heart rate, and afterload. Afterload is the force against which the heart has to pump to expel blood into the vasculature. In isolated myo fi ber experiments, myocytes are physically loaded with de fi ned forces in the form of a weight, to the lower end of a… 

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