Tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) expression alters in colorectal (CRC), pancreatic (PC), and cervical (CC) cancers. Here, phosphorylation of unfolded TrpRS and its fragments is stimulated by human cancer sera (CS; n = 13) and serum of rabbit tumor induced by Rous sarcoma virus, unaffected by donor sera (NS; 11/15) and abolished by alkaline phosphatase. At 20 years of follow-up, serum-inducible TrpRS phosphorylation found years before healthy donors (3/15) diagnosed with PC, CRC, or leukemia. I have examined a specificity of serum-inducible TrpRS phosphorylation and found, surprisingly, that serine phosphorylation of unfolded TrpRS is stimulated by anti-TrpRS rabbit antisera but is unaffected by rabbit nonimmune sera and antisera to other antigens. Anti-TrpRS immunoglobulin G (IgG) inhibits phosphorylation of full-length TrpRS and stimulates phosphorylation of its 20-kDa fragment. Phosphorylation of this fragment is stimulated also by CS but not NS. 2-Mercaptoethanol and cyclic AMP exerted synergistic inhibitory effect on TrpRS phosphorylation. Anti-TrpRS sera and casein act as chaperones increasing TrpRS phosphorylation through refolding. Histone-specific protein kinase activity in CS (n = 44) and anti-TrpRS sera was lower than that in NS (n = 11), rabbit nonimmune sera and antisera to other antigens. TrpRS inhibitors, tryptamine, and tryptophanol stimulate in vivo accumulation of enzymatically inactive, nonphosphorylated, aggregated and anti-TrpRS IgG refoldable TrpRS. Phosphorylation of postsurgical tissues (n = 18) reveals TrpRS in ovarian cancer (OVC) and CC but not in normal placenta and liver. In OVC, TrpRS phosphorylation increase correlates with elevated tryptophan-dependent ATP-inorganic pyrophosphate exchange. Although not inducing cancer, TrpRS triggers signaling concomitant with cancer.