Chaos in self-gravitating many-body systems. Lyapunov time dependence of N and the influence of general relativity

@article{Zwart2021ChaosIS,
  title={Chaos in self-gravitating many-body systems. Lyapunov time dependence of N and the influence of general relativity},
  author={Simon Portegies Zwart and Tjarda Boekholt and E D Por and Adrian S. Hamers and Stephen L. W. McMillan},
  journal={Astronomy \& Astrophysics},
  year={2021}
}
In self-gravitating N-body systems, small perturbations introduced at the start, or infinitesimal errors that are produced by the numerical integrator or are due to limited precision in the computer, grow exponentially with time. For Newton’s gravity, we confirm earlier results that for relatively homogeneous systems, this rate of growth per crossing time increases with N up to N ∼ 30, but that for larger systems, the growth rate has a weaker scaling with N. For concentrated systems, however… Expand
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