Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells

  title={Channelrhodopsin-2 and optical control of excitable cells},
  author={Feng Zhang and Liping Wang and Edward S. Boyden and Karl Deisseroth},
  journal={Nature Methods},
Electrically excitable cells are important in the normal functioning and in the pathophysiology of many biological processes. These cells are typically embedded in dense, heterogeneous tissues, rendering them difficult to target selectively with conventional electrical stimulation methods. The algal protein Channelrhodopsin-2 offers a new and promising solution by permitting minimally invasive, genetically targeted and temporally precise photostimulation. Here we explore technological issues… 

Optogentics and optrode technology to brain function manupulation

It is shown in anesthetized rat that optogenetic stimulation of nucleus accumbens neurons increased neural activation and spontaneous action potentials from the one neuron are recorded.

In Vivo Optogenetics with Stimulus Calibration.

General procedures that allow one to simultaneously stimulate neurons and use photometry with genetically encoded activity indicators to precisely calibrate stimulation are described.

Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array

A simple and powerful solution based on an array of high-power micro light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) that can generate arbitrary optical excitation patterns on a neuronal sample with micrometre and millisecond resolution is presented.

Optical developments for optogenetics

By improving the spatio‐temporal resolution of light stimulation, neural circuits can be photoactivated in patterns mimicking endogenous physiological processes by enabling simultaneous monitoring and stimulation of specific neuronal populations in intact brain preparations through genetically targeted expression of light sensitive proteins and molecular photoswitches.

Optogenetic control of cells and circuits.

Illumination of cells, tissues, or organisms engineered genetically to express photoreceptor proteins can be used to perturb biochemical and electrical signaling with exquisite cellular and molecular specificity.

Optogenetic investigation of neural circuits in vivo.

Optogenetics: Basic Concepts and Their Development.

This chapter will briefly discuss the origin and development of optogenetics and highlight the basic concepts that make it such a powerful technology.

Individually addressable optoelectronic arrays for optogenetic neural stimulation

The results show that the emitters have sufficient radiance at the required wavelength to stimulate neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and an active matrix control address system to allow simultaneous control of 256 individual micro light emitting diodes is described.

Activation of the mammalian cells by using light-sensitive ion channels.

The methods to make selected mammalian cells (PC12) respond to light excitation are described, particularly useful in the functional studies of excitable cells to mimic the stimulation from action potentials to trigger the release neurotransmitters and hormones.



Photochemical tools for remote control of ion channels in excitable cells

The development of chemical tools for optically stimulating or inhibiting signaling proteins has particular relevance for the nervous system, where precise, noninvasive control is an experimental and medical necessity.

Millisecond-timescale, genetically targeted optical control of neural activity

Temporally precise, noninvasive control of activity in well-defined neuronal populations is a long-sought goal of systems neuroscience. We adapted for this purpose the naturally occurring algal

Stimulating neurons with light

Photochemical gating of heterologous ion channels: Remote control over genetically designated populations of neurons

The use of ectopically expressed ligand-gated ion channels as transducers of optical or pharmacological stimuli is described and used to sensitize generalist vertebrate neurons to light.

Optical imaging and control of genetically designated neurons in functioning circuits.

The combination of finely resolved optical field sensing and finely resolved Optical field actuation will open new dimensions for the analysis of the connectivity, dynamics, and plasticity of neuronal circuits, and perhaps even for replacing lost--or designing novel--functionalities.

Multiphoton stimulation of neurons.

The combination of multiphoton stimulation and optical probing could enable systematic analysis of circuits and produce sustained depolarization, insensitive to sodium channel blockers yet sensitive to antioxidants.

Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns

A new optical system for rapid uncaging in arbitrary patterns to emulate complex neural activity using TeO2 acousto-optical deflectors to steer an ultraviolet beam rapidly and can uncage at over 20,000 locations per second.

Genetic methods for illuminating the function of neural circuits