Changing the Nomenclature/Taxonomy for Intersex: A Scientific and Clinical Rationale

  title={Changing the Nomenclature/Taxonomy for Intersex: A Scientific and Clinical Rationale},
  author={Alice Domurat Dreger and Cheryl Chase and Adriana Andrade de Sousa and P A Gruppuso and Joel E. Frader},
  journal={Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism},
  pages={729 - 734}
We explain here why the standard division of many intersex types into true hermaphroditism, male pseudohermaphroditism, and female pseudohermaphroditism is scientifically specious and clinically problematic. First we provide the history of this tripartite taxonomy and note how the taxonomy predates and largely ignores the modern sciences of genetics and endocrinology. We then note the numerous ways that the existing taxonomy confuses and sometimes harms clinicians, researchers, patients, and… Expand
Imperatives of Normality: From “Intersex” to “Disorders of Sex Development”
In May 2006 the U.S. and European endocrinological societies published a consensus statement announcing a significant change in nomenclature. No longer would nineteenth-century variations on the termExpand
How should we classify intersex disorders?
A comprehensive classification of those DSD conditions generally regarded as belonging under the heading of intersex, based on gonadal histology is proposed and will not be required when the diagnosis is clearly established biochemically or by gene studies as the histology can be confidently predicted. Expand
Divergence or Disorder?: the politics of naming intersex
  • Elizabeth Reis
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 2007
It is argued that using disorder is problematic, because it implies medical conditions in need of repair, when some intersex anatomies, though atypical, do not necessarily need surgical or hormonal correction. Expand
Summary of Consensus Statement on Intersex Disorders and Their Management
The goals were to acknowledge and discuss the more controversial issues in intersex management, provide management guidelines for intersex patients, and identify and prioritize questions that need additional investigation. Expand
Disorders of sex differentiation: a pediatric urologist's perspective of new terminology and recommendations.
This review summarizes, analyzes and considers the implications of nomenclature and treatment recommendations in individuals with congenitally atypical gonadal, chromosomal or anatomical gender and recommends increasing focus on determining precise etiology and defining objective outcomes will help more clearly determine appropriate management and prognosis for this heterogeneous group of disorders. Expand
Shifting syndromes: Sex chromosome variations and intersex classifications
Initial descriptions of Turner and Klinefelter’s syndromes and their subsequent inclusion in intersex classifications, which were increasingly grounded in scientific understandings of sex chromosomes that emerged in the 1950s are explored. Expand
Normalizing Medicine: Between “Intersexuals” and Individuals with “Disorders of Sex Development”
In this paper, I apply Michel Foucault’s analysis of normalization to the 2006 announcement by the US and European Endocrinological Societies that variations on the term “hermaphrodite” andExpand
Gender Eugenics? The Ethics of PGD for Intersex Conditions
  • R. Sparrow
  • Medicine
  • The American journal of bioethics : AJOB
  • 2013
The ethics of the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent the birth of children with intersex conditions/disorders of sex development (DSDs) and that PGD for other “cosmetic” variations in sexual anatomy is more defensible than might first appear are suggested. Expand
[New definitions and classifications of the intersexual states: in which the Chicago Consensus has contributed to the state of the art?].
A critical analysis of the Chicago Consensus is performed, raising the question that the new terminology does not solve the problems and persist being stigmatizing to the patient and to the family. Expand
Bringing Back the Term “Intersex”
The fluidity of sex assignment is discussed and how this unprecedented event of the nation’s first intersex birth certificate to a 55-year-old individual who was born with a DSD consisting of male chromosomes, female external genitalia, and mixed internal genitalia may provide an opportunity to improve the care of patients with aDSD. Expand


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Looking Queer: Image and Identity in Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay and Transgendered Communities
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Video available from
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A case of true unilateral hermaphroditism with ovotestis occurring in a man , with a summary and criticism of the recorded cases of true hermaphroditism
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Affronting reason
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      Handbuch der Pathologischen Anatomie. Berlin: Α. Hirschwald, 1876; see