Aphthous lesions in the oral mucosa (OM) were simulated in dog experiments by ligation of the common bile duct. In one of the experimental groups the beta-adrenoblocker propranolol was administered 30 min before surgery. Two hours after surgery the animals manifested changes in blood microcirculation of the OM. In animals treated with propranolol, the characteristics of blood microcirculation remained within normal. It is concluded that the development of aphthous lesions is preceded by functional disorders of blood microcirculation in the OM which are probably related to alterations in the neurovascular system.