Changes in microtubule number and length during axon differentiation

@inproceedings{Yu1994ChangesIM,
  title={Changes in microtubule number and length during axon differentiation},
  author={W. Yu and PW Baas},
  booktitle={The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year={1994}
}
  • W. Yu, P. Baas
  • Published in
    The Journal of neuroscience…
    1 May 1994
  • Biology
Hippocampal neurons in culture initially extend several minor processes that are approximately 20 microns in length. The first minor process to grow approximately 10 microns longer than the others will continue to grow rapidly and become the axon (Goslin and Banker, 1989). We sought to define changes in the microtubule (MT) array that occur during axon differentiation. In theory, axon differentiation could involve an increase in MT number, MT length, or some combination of both. To address this… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Reorganization and Movement of Microtubules in Axonal Growth Cones and Developing Interstitial Branches
TLDR
Time-lapse digital imaging of developing cortical neurons microinjected with fluorescently labeled tubulin is used to follow the movements of individual MTs in two regions of the axon where directed growth occurs: the terminal growth cone and the developing interstitial branch, demonstrating directly that MTs move within axonal growth cones and developed interstitial branches.
Transport of dendritic microtubules establishes their nonuniform polarity orientation
TLDR
C cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to nanomolar levels of vinblastine after one of the immature processes had developed into the axon but before the others had become dendrites, indicating that transport ofMTs from the cell body is an essential feature of dendritic development, and that this transport establishes the nonuniform polarity orientation of MTs in the dendrite.
Centrosome-dependent microtubule organization sets the conditions for axon formation
TLDR
It is reported that microtubule dynamics in early neurons follow a radial organization which establishes the conditions for the axon formation, and data show that early centrosome-dependent microtubules organization contributes to axon Formation.
Cell-Length-Dependent Microtubule Accumulation during Polarization
Microtubule Transport from the Cell Body into the Axons of Growing Neurons
TLDR
Results show that microtubules are transported from the cell body into growing axons and that this transport is robust, delivering MTs to all regions of the newly formed axon.
Microtubule reconfiguration during axogenesis
TLDR
When cultured on polylysine, rat sympathetic neurons extend modest lamellae which contain a mass of relatively short non-aligned microtubules, some of which can be explained by interactions with actin and/or by forces generated by molecular motor proteins.
The intricate relationship between microtubules and their associated motor proteins during axon growth and maintenance
TLDR
The intricate machinery which regulates MT dynamics, axonal transport and the motors is essential for nervous system development and function, and its investigation has huge potential to bring urgently required progress in understanding the causes of many developmental and degenerative brain disorders.
A model for generating differences in microtubules between axonal branches depending on the distance from terminals
TLDR
A model of MT lifetime in axonal terminal branches is generated by adapting a length-dependent model in which parameters for MT dynamics were constant in the arbor and provides a feedback mechanism for MT regulation that depends on the axonal arbor geometry.
Growth Cones Are Not Required for Initial Establishment of Polarity or Differential Axon Branch Growth in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons
TLDR
Results indicate that neither formation of a single axon nor differential growth of branches are dependent on growth cone motility and suggest that the neuron can regulate neurite elongation at sites other than at the growth cone.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 56 REFERENCES
Changes in microtubule polarity orientation during the development of hippocampal neurons in culture
TLDR
The establishment of regional differences in microtubule polarity orientation occurs after the initial polarization of the neuron and is temporally correlated with the differentiation of the dendrites.
Serial analysis of microtubules in cultured rat sensory axons
TLDR
The SER showed marked variation in form, from the expected membrane-bounded vesicle to profiles that resembled a microtubule or a thinner densely stained filament, which exhibited no obvious morphological specialization.
Experimental observations on the development of polarity by hippocampal neurons in culture
TLDR
This data indicates that the establishment of neuronal polarity during normal development may similarly involve an interaction among processes whose identities have not yet been determined, when, by chance, one exceeds the others by a critical length, it becomes specified as the axon.
THE CYTOSKELETON IN MYELINATED AXONS: SERIAL SECTION STUDY
TLDR
The results favor the hypothesis that microtubules in the myelinated axon are long, but do not extend the entire length of the axon, and neurofilaments decreased remarkably in number at the node of Ranvier, indicating that most of them were discontinuous at the nodal region.
The cytoskeleton of neurites after microtubule depolymerization.
Processes induced by tau expression in Sf9 cells have an axon-like microtubule organization
TLDR
Results suggest that tau may play a fundamental role in generating microtubule organization in the axon, and in particular, a key property of t Tau may be to bundle MTs preferentially with the same polarity orientation.
The plus ends of stable microtubules are the exclusive nucleating structures for microtubules in the axon
TLDR
It is determined that the axons of cultured sympathetic neurons contain two classes of MT polymer, stable and labile, that differ in their sensitivity to nocodazole by roughly 35-fold, and the plus ends of stable MTs are the exclusive nucleating structures for MTs in the axon.
Intracellular organization of hippocampal neurons during the development of neuronal polarity
TLDR
There was no correlation between the position of the Golgi complex or the microtubule organizing center and the site of origin of the axon in cells fixed shortly after the axons had emerged, suggesting the localization of cytoplasmic constituents does not play a major role in determining which of the processes initially extended by hippocampal neurons becomes the definitive axon.
The transport properties of axonal microtubules establish their polarity orientation
TLDR
MT polarity analyses indicate that highly efficient mechanisms exist in the neuron to transport preassembled MTs from the cell body into the axon, and these mechanisms are active even at the expense of the cellBody, and even under conditions that promote some MT disassembly in the neurons.
Microtubule behavior in the growth cones of living neurons during axon elongation
TLDR
Neurons that were about to turn spontaneously generated microtubules in the future direction of growth, suggesting that orientation of microtubule might be an important early step in neuronal pathfinding.
...
...