It has been well demonstrated that the principal factor responsible for oxidative damage during exercise is the increase in oxygen consumption. However, other theoretical factors (acidosis, catecholamine autoxidation, ischemia-reperfusion syndrome, etc.) that are known to induce, in vitro, oxidative damage may also be operative during short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise. Therefore, we hypothesized that short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise (30-s Wingate test) could induce an oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation markers [serum lipid radical production detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels detected by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method], as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)] and erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) levels, were measured at rest, after the Wingate test and during the 40 min of recovery. The recovery of exercise was associated with a significant increase (x2.7) in lipid radical production detected by ESR spectroscopy, as well as with changes in the erythrocyte GSH level (−13.6%) and SOD activity (−11.7%). The paradoxical decrease in plasma TBARS (−23.7%) which was correlated with the peak power developed during the Wingate test (r=−0.7), strongly suggests that such exercise stimulates the elimination of MDA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that short-term supramaximal anaerobic exercise induces an oxidative stress and that the plasma TBARS level is not a suitable marker during this type of exercise.