Changes in Gray Matter Induced by Learning—Revisited

@article{Driemeyer2008ChangesIG,
  title={Changes in Gray Matter Induced by Learning—Revisited},
  author={Joenna Driemeyer and Janina Boyke and Christian Gaser and Christian B{\"u}chel and Arne May},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
  year={2008},
  volume={3}
}
Background Recently, activation-dependant structural brain plasticity in humans has been demonstrated in adults after three months of training a visio-motor skill. Learning three-ball cascade juggling was associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex comprising the motion sensitive area hMT/V5 bilaterally. However, the exact time-scale of usage-dependant structural changes occur is still unknown. A better understanding of the… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Dynamic Properties of Human Brain Structure: Learning-Related Changes in Cortical Areas and Associated Fiber Connections
TLDR
The results make clear how marginal alterations in the authors' ever changing environment affect adult brain structure and elucidate the interrelated reorganization in cortical areas and associated fiber connections in correlation with improvements in task performance.
Bidirectional gray matter changes after complex motor skill learning
TLDR
Novel evidence is provided that short-term motor skill learning is associated with learning-related structural brain alterations and it is shown that practicing a motor skill is not exclusively accompanied by increased GM volume.
Structural Gray Matter Changes in the Hippocampus and the Primary Motor Cortex on An-Hour-to-One- Day Scale Can Predict Arm-Reaching Performance Improvement
TLDR
The results suggest that GM structural changes are not simply a footprint of previous motor learning but have some relationship with future motor learning, and new insight is provided into the role of structural changes in causing functional changes during motor learning.
Repeated Structural Imaging Reveals Nonlinear Progression of Experience‐Dependent Volume Changes in Human Motor Cortex
TLDR
Time‐series analyses revealed that gray matter in the primary motor cortices expanded during the first 4 weeks and then partially renormalized, in particular in the right hemisphere, despite continued practice and increasing task proficiency, and may qualify as a general principle of structural plasticity.
Training-Induced Neural Plasticity in Golf Novices
TLDR
It is demonstrated that a physical leisure activity induces training-dependent changes in gray matter and it is assumed that a strict and controlled training protocol is not mandatory for training-induced adaptations of gray matter.
Gray and white matter changes associated with tool-use learning in macaque monkeys
TLDR
Noninvasive MRI and voxel-based morphometry can detect significant brain changes in individual trained monkeys exposed to tool-use training for the first time and could open up a means of investigating the underlying neurobiology of motor learning and other higher brain functions in individual animals.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 21 REFERENCES
Structural brain alterations following 5 days of intervention: dynamic aspects of neuroplasticity.
TLDR
This work shows that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered to the superior temporal cortex causes macroscopic cortical changes in gray matter in the auditory cortex as early as within 5 days of continuous intervention, and suggests that cortical plasticity on a structural level in adult humans is already detectable after 1 week.
Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Brain Structure Changes during Extensive Learning
TLDR
The results indicate that the acquisition of a great amount of highly abstract information may be related to a particular pattern of structural gray matter changes in particular brain areas.
Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training
TLDR
This discovery of a stimulus-dependent alteration in the brain's macroscopic structure contradicts the traditionally held view that cortical plasticity is associated with functional rather than anatomical changes.
Brain Structures Differ between Musicians and Non-Musicians
TLDR
Using a voxel-by-voxel morphometric technique, gray matter volume differences in motor, auditory, and visual-spatial brain regions are found when comparing professional musicians (keyboard players) with a matched group of amateur musicians and non-musicians.
Magnetic resonance-based morphometry: a window into structural plasticity of the brain
TLDR
This review covers the last 3 years, which have witnessed remarkable progress in this alluring new field of magnetic resonance morphometry, which promises to be a powerful method to study disease states of the brain and to track the effects of novel therapies.
Long-term in vivo imaging of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in adult cortex
TLDR
The measurements suggest that sensory experience drives the formation and elimination of synapses and that these changes might underlie adaptive remodelling of neural circuits.
Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers.
  • E. Maguire, D. Gadian, C. Frith
  • Psychology, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2000
TLDR
Structural MRIs of the brains of humans with extensive navigation experience, licensed London taxi drivers, were analyzed and compared with those of control subjects who did not drive taxis, finding a capacity for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands.
Glial hypertrophy is associated with synaptogenesis following motor‐skill learning, but not with angiogenesis following exercise
TLDR
The data indicate that glial volume correlates with synaptic numbers and not with capillary density, although there was a tendency for glialVolume per capillary to be lower in the exercise groups.
Cerebral Asymmetry and the Effects of Sex and Handedness on Brain Structure: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis of 465 Normal Adult Human Brains
TLDR
There was a significant main effect of sex on brain morphology, even after accounting for the larger global volumes of grey and white matter in males.
...
...