Role of Vascular Endothelial Cells in Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Induced by Seawater Immersion in a Rat Trauma Model
OBJECTIVE To explore the effects of hyperosmotic fluid and low temperature on hemorrhage and coagulation system after immersion of dogs with open abdominal wounds in seawater. METHODS Twenty healthy dogs were subjected to open abdominal injury, then dogs were randomized equally into two groups: the control group (n=10) (without seawater immersion) and seawater immersion group (n=10). The variables of prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (APTT), D-dimer and factor II, granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140), endothelin-1 (ET-1) were determined. RESULTS PT and APTT were significantly prolonged. D-dimer, GMP-140, and ET-1 were increased, while factor II was decreased after the dog with open abdominal wound was immersed in seawater (all P<0.05). Compared with the variables of control group, PT, APTT, D-dimer and factor II, ET-1 in seawater immersion group had markedly changed (all P<0.05) except GMP-140 at different time points (all P>0.05). CONCLUSION Obvious vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, platelet activation, inhibition of coagulation factor activity, coagulopathy, and disorders in thrombosis and fibrinolysis system activation occur after dogs with open abdominal wounds are immersed in seawater.