Change blindness and inattentional blindness.

  title={Change blindness and inattentional blindness.},
  author={Melinda S. Jensen and Richard Yao and Whitney N. Street and Daniel J. Simons},
  journal={Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Cognitive science},
  volume={2 5},
Change blindness and inattentional blindness are both failures of visual awareness. Change blindness is the failure to notice an obvious change. Inattentional blindness is the failure to notice the existence of an unexpected item. In each case, we fail to notice something that is clearly visible once we know to look for it. Despite similarities, each type of blindness has a unique background and distinct theoretical implications. Here, we discuss the central paradigms used to explore each… 

Expectation-based blindness: Predictions about object categories gate awareness of focally attended objects

Selective attention gates access to conscious awareness, resulting in surprising failures to notice clearly visible but unattended objects (‘inattentional blindness’). Here, we demonstrate that

Are failures to look, to represent, or to learn associated with change blindness during screen-capture video learning?

Although phenomena such as change blindness and inattentional blindness are robust, it is not entirely clear how these failures of visual awareness are related to failures to attend to visual

Does Expertise Reduce Rates of Inattentional Blindness? A Meta-Analysis

Inattentional blindness occurs when one fails to notice a fully visible stimulus because one's attention is on another task. Researchers have suggested that expertise at this other task should reduce

The invisible gorilla revisited: using eye tracking to investigate inattentional blindness in interface design

This work investigated how inattentional blindness affect users' perception through an eye tracking investigation on Simons and Chabris' video as well as on the web site of an airline that uses a rotating banner to advertise special deals.

Evidence of change blindness in subjective image fidelity assessment

Evidence is presented that this faulty communication between early vision and visual working memory needs to be accounted for in image fidelity assessment (also known as full-reference image quality assessment), and a user study is designed to analyse participants opinions based on how much they have to rely on theirVisual working memory in order to give fidelity score.

Trajectory changes are susceptible to change blindness manipulations

The study provides evidence that the flicker paradigm can be used to induce change blindness with dynamic stimuli, and that changes to predictable trajectories are detected or missed in the similar way as orientation changes.

Clever Cats: Do They Utilize Change Blindness as a Covered Approaching Strategy?

Here, several online videos with cats and a husky appear to use humans’ change blindness to their advantage to sneak upon them, so as to deduce the effects of change blindness and other perceptual phenomena from animals’ behaviour.

The role of perceptual and cognitive load on inattentional blindness: A systematic review and three meta-analyses

Investigating whether a classic theoretical model of attention, namely the Load Theory, could account for a large range of empirical findings in this field by distinguishing the role of perceptual and cognitive resources in attentional selection and attentional capture by irrelevant stimuli reveals that inattentional blindness significantly increases with the perceptual load of the task.

The relationship between sustained inattentional blindness and working memory capacity

It appears that any relationship between inattentional blindness and working memory is either too small to have practical significance or is moderated by other factors and consequently varies with attributes such as the sample characteristics within a given study.



Gorillas in Our Midst: Sustained Inattentional Blindness for Dynamic Events

A new study builds on classic studies of divided visual attention to examine inattentional blindness for complex objects and events in dynamic scenes and suggests that the likelihood of noticing an unexpected object depends on the similarity of that object to other objects in the display and on how difficult the priming monitoring task is.

What you see is what you set: sustained inattentional blindness and the capture of awareness.

The authors conclude that many--but not all--aspects of attention capture apply to inattentional blindness but that these 2 classes of phenomena remain importantly distinct.

Change blindness: past, present, and future

Memory for centrally attended changing objects in an incidental real-world change detection paradigm.

It is shown that change blindness for a conversation partner occurs in a variety of situations, and participants who noticed the substitution showed better memory for both pre- and post-change experimenters than participants who did not detect the change.

Current Approaches to Change Blindness

Across saccades, blinks, blank screens, movie cuts, and other interruptions, observers fail to detect substantial changes to the visual details of objects and scenes. This inability to spot changes

"Change Blindness" Blindness: An Implicit Measure of a Metacognitive Error.

Most people have strong but mistaken intuitions about how perception and cognition work. Such intuitions can give rise to especially pernicious ‘metacognitive errors’, which are directly fueled by

Change Blindness in the Absence of a Visual Disruption

In two experiments, it is demonstrated that change blindness can occur even in the absence of a visual disruption, and when changes are sufficiently gradual, the visible change signal does not seem to draw attention, and large changes can go undetected.

Inattentional blindness for a noxious multimodal stimulus.

Noxious bimodal stimuli were used as a test case to measure the strength of inattentional blindness and a large proportion of participants failed to detect this event even when the noxious audio associated with it was strengthened and isolated in time from surrounding noises.