Chandra limits on X-ray emission associated with the supermassive black holes in three giant elliptical galaxies

@article{Loewenstein2001ChandraLO,
  title={Chandra limits on X-ray emission associated with the supermassive black holes in three giant elliptical galaxies},
  author={M. Loewenstein and Richard F. Mushotzky and Leonardo Angelini and Keith A. Arnaud and E. Quataert Nasagsfc and Umcp and Usra and Ias},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2001},
  volume={555}
}
Elliptical galaxy nuclei are the sites of the largest black holes known but typically show little or no nuclear activity. We investigate this extreme quiescence using Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the giant elliptical galaxies NGC 1399, NGC 4472, and NGC 4636. The unique Chandra imaging power enables us to place upper limits of 7.3, 15, and 28 × 10-9LEdd for the ~108-109 M☉ black holes in NGC 1399, NGC 4472, and NGC 4636, respectively. The corresponding radiative efficiencies in… 

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