# Challenging local realism with human choices

@article{Abelln2018ChallengingLR, title={Challenging local realism with human choices}, author={Carlos Abell{\'a}n and Antonio Ac{\'i}n and Alvaro Alarc{\'o}n and Olivier Alibart and Christian Kraglund Andersen and Francesco Andreoli and Andrian Beckert and Federica A. Beduini and Ariel Bendersky and Marco Bentivegna and Peter Bierhorst and Daniel Burchardt and Ad{\'a}n Cabello and Jaime Cari{\~n}e and S. Carrasco and Gonzalo Carvacho and Daniel Cavalcanti and Rafael Chaves and J. Cort{\'e}s-Vega and {\'A}ngela Capel Cuevas and Aldo Delgado and Henri de Riedmatten and Christopher Eichler and Pau Farrera and Jorge Fuenzalida and Marta Garc{\'i}a-Matos and Robert Garthoff and S. Gasparinetti and Thomas Gerrits and Farzad Ghafari Jouneghani and Scott Glancy and Esteban S. G{\'o}mez and P. Gonz{\'a}lez and Jia Yu Guan and Johannes Handsteiner and Johannes Heinsoo and Georg Heinze and Alina Hirschmann and Omar Jim{\'e}nez and Florian Kaiser and Emanuel Knill and Laura T. Knoll and Sebastian Krinner and P. Kurpiers and Miguel A. Larotonda and Jonathan Larsson and Alexandra Lenhard and H. B. Li and M.‐H. Li and Gustavo Lima and B. Liu and Y. Liu and Ignacio H. L{\'o}pez Grande and Tommaso Lunghi and X. Ma and Omar S. Maga{\~n}a-Loaiza and P. Magnard and A. S. Magnoni and Maria Marti-Prieto and D. Mart{\'i}nez and Paolo Mataloni and Alejandro M{\'a}ttar and Margherita Mazzera and Richard P. Mirin and Morgan W. Mitchell and S W Nam and Markus Oppliger and J.-W. Pan and Rajvi Patel and Geoff J. Pryde and Dominik Rauch and Kai Redeker and Daniel Riel{\"a}nder and Martin Ringbauer and T. Roberson and Wenjamin Rosenfeld and Yves Salath'e and Luca Santodonato and Gr'egory Sauder and Thomas Scheidl and Christian T. Schmiegelow and Fabio Sciarrino and Andrea Seri and Lynden K. Shalm and S Shi and Sergei Slussarenko and Martin J Stevens and S. Tanzilli and Flores Toledo and Jordi Tura i Brugu{\'e}s and Rupert Ursin and Panagiotis Vergyris and V. B. Verma and Theo Walter and Andreas Wallraff and Z. Wang and Harald Weinfurter and Morgan M. Weston and A. G. White and C. Y. Wu and Guilherme B. Xavier and Li You and X. Yuan and Anton Zeilinger and Q. Zhang and W H Zhang and J. Zhong}, journal={Nature}, year={2018}, volume={557}, pages={212-216} }

A Bell test is a randomized trial that compares experimental observations against the philosophical worldview of local realism1, in which the properties of the physical world are independent of our observation of them and no signal travels faster than light. A Bell test requires spatially distributed entanglement, fast and high-efficiency detection and unpredictable measurement settings2,3. Although technology can satisfy the first two of these requirements4–7, the use of physical devices to…

## 100 Citations

Experimental measurement-dependent local Bell test with human free will

- Computer SciencePhysical Review A
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The experimental result shows a Bell inequality violation that cannot be explained by local hidden variable models with independence parameter, which quantifies the degree to which a hidden variable model would need to constrain human choices, if it is to reproduce the experimental results.

A Kantian Solution for the Freedom of Choice Loophole in Bell Experiments

- Philosophy
- 2020

Bell's theorem is based on three assumptions: realism, locality, and measurement independence. The third assumption is identified by Bell as linked to the freedom of choice hypothesis. He holds that…

Relaxed Bell inequalities with arbitrary measurement dependence for each observer

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Modified Bell inequalities are derived that relax measurement independence, for either or both observers, while remaining locally causal, and it is argued that, contrary to various claims in the literature, relaxing freedom of choice need not imply superdeterminism.

Experimental tests of Multiplicative Bell Inequalities

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Bell inequalities are mathematical constructs that demarcate the boundary between quantum and classical physics. A new class of multiplicative Bell inequalities originating from a volume maximization…

Time, Entropy, and Entanglement Contextually Defined

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- 2021

The prevailing interpretations of physics are based on deeply entrenched assumptions, rooted in classical mechanics. Logical implications include: the denial of entropy as a fundamental physical…

Measurement-dependence cost for Bell nonlocality: Causal versus retrocausal models

- Computer Science
- 2020

This work constructs the most efficient such simulation, as measured by the mutual information between the underlying variables and the measurement settings, for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) scenario, and finds that the maximal quantum violation requires a mutual information of just $\ensuremath{\sim}0.080$ bits.

A Statistical Approach to Two-Particle Bell Tests

- Physics
- 2021

Extensive experimental tests of the Bell inequality have been conducted over time and the test results are viewed as a testimony to quantum mechanics. In considering the close tie between quantum…

Comment on Causal Networks and Freedom of Choice in Bell's Theorem

- Computer Science
- 2022

It is correctly proved, that one can explain and quantify possible violation of MI without evoking super-determinism, and why MI should be called noncontextuality and why its violation in Bell Tests confirms only the contextual character of quantum observables.

Contingent Free Choice: On Extending Quantum Theory to a Contextual, Deterministic Theory With Improved Predictive Power

- Philosophy
- 2019

It is suggested that quantum experiments, such as the EPR experiment, involving measurements across positions in spacetime, can be recast as a game with imperfect information between human agents and the universe.

Experimentally generated randomness certified by the impossibility of superluminal signals

- Computer ScienceNature
- 2018

1,024 random bits that are uniformly distributed to within 10−12 and unpredictable assuming the impossibility of superluminal communication are generated and certified using a loophole-free Bell test and a protocol is described that is optimized for devices that are characterized by a low per-trial violation of Bell inequalities.

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