Cervical Dystonia

@article{Velickovic2012CervicalD,
  title={Cervical Dystonia},
  author={Miodrag Velickovic and Reina Benabou and Mitchell F Brin},
  journal={Drugs},
  year={2012},
  volume={61},
  pages={1921-1943}
}
Dystonia is a syndrome of sustained involuntary muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal posturing. Cervical dystonia (CD) is a form of dystonia that involves neck muscles. However, CD is not the only cause of neck rotation. Torticollis may be caused by orthopaedic, musculofibrotic, infectious and other neurological conditions that affect the anatomy of the neck, and structural causes.It is estimated that there are between 60 000 and 90 000 patients… 
A Case of Cervical Dystonia with Non Responsive To Usual Noninvasive Treatment
TLDR
A rare case of a forty seven year old male patient with a history of cervical dystonia presented with struggle with head position, resisting but never overcoming the tendency of his head to assume an unnatural position, and drugs including oral analgesic, muscle relaxant, anti-Parkinson drug & even antipsychotic drug failed.
Anterocollis and anterocaput
Effect of Neck Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection on Proprioception and Somatosensory-Motor Cortical Processing in Cervical Dystonia
TLDR
Wrist proprioceptive perception during passive/active movements is abnormal in CD, and an excessive rise of premotor/motor cortical β-oscillations during motor planning is associated with this proprioception dysfunction.
Cervical Dystonia Refractory to Botulinum Toxin Responding to Radiofrequency Ablation: A Case Report
TLDR
It is suggested that large-scale research is required to postulate whether CD patients, whose symptoms are refractory to botulinum toxin, should be routinely screened for cervical facet arthropathy.
Alterations of Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity and Degree Centrality in Cervical Dystonia: A Resting-State fMRI Study
TLDR
Local abnormalities and interhemispheric interaction deficits in the sensorimotor network, postcentral gyrus, and PCu, default mode network, and basal ganglia may be the key characteristics in the pathogenesis mechanism of CD.
The therapeutic usage of botulinum toxin (Botox) in non-cosmetic head and neck conditions – An evidence based review
  • K. Awan
  • Medicine
    Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
  • 2017
Hemifacial spasm in sleep – A polysomnographic study
Accuracy of Ultrasound-Guided and Non-guided Botulinum Toxin Injection Into Neck Muscles Involved in Cervical Dystonia: A Cadaveric Study
Objective To compare the accuracy of ultrasound-guided and non-guided botulinum toxin injections into the neck muscles involved in cervical dystonia. Methods Two physicians examined six muscles
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References

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TLDR
Because the cervical dystonia in 38% of patients is not spasmodic, it is proposed that the term “spas modic torticollis” is not a completely appropriate designation for this condition.
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TLDR
Results might indicate different physiological mechanisms in clinically indistinguishable antagonistic gestures in cervical dystonia patients with idiopathic CD.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is concluded that a unilateral pallidal lesion or stimulation is an effective method of treatment in focal dystonia and deep brain stimulation is superior to lesioning because of the capability of manipulating the stimulation parameters which can modify the pallidotomy effect.
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TLDR
There has been a tendency to regard many cases of torticollis as psychopathic in origin, since patients affected "appear to be looking away from".
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