Cerebellum in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

@article{Berquin1998CerebellumIA,
  title={Cerebellum in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder},
  author={Patrick Berquin and Jay N. Giedd and Leslie K. Jacobsen and Susan D. Hamburger and Amy L. Krain and Judith L. Rapoport and Francisco Xavier Castellanos},
  journal={Neurology},
  year={1998},
  volume={50},
  pages={1087 - 1093}
}
Clinical, neuroanatomic, neurobehavioral, and functional brain-imaging studies suggest a role for the cerebellum in cognitive functions, including attention. However, the cerebellum has not been systematically studied in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We quantified the cerebellar and vermal volumes, and the midsagittal areas of three vermal regions, from MRIs of 46 right-handed boys with ADHD and 47 matched healthy controls. Vermal volume was significantly less in the boys… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Brain development and ADHD.

Evaluation of Cerebellar Size in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The finding of abnormal inferior posterior vermal size suggests that dysfunction within this region of the cerebellum may underlie clinical deficits seen in individuals with ADHD.

Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

In the ADHD group but not in the control group, greater right superior prefrontal volume predicted poorer performance on a test of sustained attention, and patterns of brain abnormality did not differ in male and female children with ADHD.

H¹-MR-spectroscopy of cerebellum in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

  • F. Castellanos
  • Psychology, Biology
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
  • 2002
This review focuses on magnetic resonance imaging studies of the brain anatomy of ADHD, which found that ADHD is associated with a statistically significant 3% to 4% global reduction in brain volume in both boys and girls, and these differences continued throughout childhood and adolescence.

The cerebellum and motor dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders

This review finds evidence of motor dysfunction associated with neuropsychiatrie disorders consistent with disruption of cerebellar motor function in autism, schizophrenia and dyslexia, but it is cautioned that the restricted set of motor symptoms does not suggest global Cerebellar dysfunction.

Anatomical and functional brain imaging in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—A neurological view

The core findings in ADHD imaging are alterations in the architecture and function of prefrontal cortex and cerebellum, and dysfunction of basal ganglia is a consistent finding in childhood and adulthood ADHD.

Cerebellar Morphology and the Effects of Stimulant Medications in Youths with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

The cerebellum is emerging as a key anatomical structure underlying normal attentional and cognitive control mechanisms. Dysregulation within cerebellar circuits may contribute to the core symptoms
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 80 REFERENCES

Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Two anterior regions, the rostrum and the rostral body, were found to have significantly smaller areas in the ADHD group, supporting theories of abnormal frontal lobe development and function in ADHD.

Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder and Asymmetry of the Caudate Nucleus

Results suggest that normal (L > R) morphologic asymmetry in the region of the caudate nucleus may be related to asymmetries observed in neurotransmitter systems implicated in ADHD.

Frontal lobe functions in attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: A review and research report

While both types of ADD share some apparent similarities in deficits on a few frontal lobe tests in this study, the totality of existing findings suggests an additional problem with perceptual-motor speed and processing in the ADD/-H group.

Schizophrenia and cognitive dysmetria: a positron-emission tomography study of dysfunctional prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry.

Results support a role for the cerebellum in cognitive functions and suggest that patients with schizophrenia may suffer from a "cognitive dysmetria" due to dysfunctional prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuitry.

Executive functions and developmental psychopathology.

It is revealed that EF deficits are consistently found in both ADHD and autism but not in CD (without ADHD) or in TS, and both the severity and profile of EF deficits appears to differ across ADHD and Autism.

Cognitive planning deficit in patients with cerebellar atrophy

Neither age, sex, education level, severity of dementia, word fluency, response time, memory, nor visuomotor procedural learning predicted CA or CCA performance, but a deficit in cognitive planning suggests a functional link between the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and the frontal lobe concerning specific cognitive processes.

Frontal lobe disinhibition in attention deficit disorder

Comparison of the neuropsychological performances of ADD children and matched controls revealed a relatively circumscribed pattern of deficits on tests presumed to measure frontal lobe inhibitory control, suggesting a possible maturational lag in frontal lobe functioning among ADD subjects.

Quantitative morphology of the cerebellum and fourth ventricle in childhood-onset schizophrenia.

Findings are consistent with observations of small vermal size in adult schizophrenia and provide further support for abnormal cerebellar function in childhood- and adult-onset schizophrenia.

Corpus callosum morphology in children with Tourette syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

The findings suggest that the area of the CC is larger in children with TS, and that this difference is independent of age, handedness, intracranial area, and the diagnosis of ADHD.
...