Cephalosporins 1945–1986

  title={Cephalosporins 1945–1986},
  author={Edward P. Abraham},
SummaryIn 1945, after penicillin had been introduced into medicine, an antibiotic-producing species of Cephalosporium was isolated from a sewage outfall in Sardinia. Four years later in Oxford, this organism was found to produce several antibiotics, one of which was a penicillin with a new side-chain, penicillin N. During a chemical study in 1953, this penicillin was shown to be contaminated with a second substance, cephalosporin C, which contained a β-lactam ring but was resistant to… 
Towards new b-lactam antibiotics
Antibiotics have had a profound impact on human health and belong to one of the largest-selling classes of drugs worldwide. Introduced into industrial production only some half century ago, these
b-Lactams and b-Lactamase Inhibitors: An Overview
This work provides a comprehensive overview of b -lactam antibiotics that are currently in use, as well as a look ahead to several new compounds that are in the development pipeline.
β-Lactam Antibiotics
This review traces the historical development of β-lactam drug discovery, with emphasis on the most recent progress in the medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, and microbiology of the β-Lactams leading to the discovery of new generation β- lactam antibacterials effective against the Gram-negative and -positive bacterial pathogens of current medical concern.
β-Lactams and β-Lactamase Inhibitors: An Overview.
This work provides a comprehensive overview of β-lactam antibiotics that are currently in use, as well as a look ahead to several new compounds that are in the development pipeline.
Cephalosporin Utilisation Review and Evaluation
Through its DUE programme, the Royal Adelaide Hospital has investigated the use of cephalosporins, including ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefoxitin, which serves as a useful model for the promotion of rational and economical therapy with cep Halosporin and other drug groups.
Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy with ceftriaxone, a review
Ceftriaxone has an excellent safety profile in the OPAT setting, and its broad spectrum of activity makes it an established agent in a wide range of clinical infection syndromes, such as skin and soft-tissue infection, bone and joint infection, streptococcal endocarditis and several others.
Induction of Cryptic Antifungal Pulicatin Derivatives from Pantoea Agglomerans by Microbial Co-Culture
A rare example of the induction of silent/cryptic bacterial biosynthetic pathway by the co-culture of Durum wheat plant roots-associated bacterium Pantoea aggolomerans and date palm leaves-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum is reported.
Microbial Resistance Movements: An Overview of Global Public Health Threats Posed by Antimicrobial Resistance, and How Best to Counter
Suggestions on how to address this public health threat are suggested, including recommendations on training medical students about antibiotics, and strategies to overcome the problems of irrational antibiotic prescribing and AMR are concluded.
Chirality: The Key to Specific Bacterial Protease-Based Diagnosis?
A protease substrate fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-library comprising 115 short D- and L-amino-acid-containing fluorogenic substrates was designed and used as a tool to generate proteolytic profiles for a wide range of bacteria.


Identity of Cephalosporin N and Synnematin B
In 1951 work in England revealed that the Cephalosporium from Sardinia produced a family of antibiotics which could be extracted into common organic solvents, and a water-soluble antibiotic with quite different properties.
Derivatives of cephalosporin C formed with certain heterocyclic tertiary bases. The cephalosporin C-A family.
Further work showed that a family of compounds could be produced by allowing cephalosporin C to react with different heterocyclic tertiary bases, including a specific compound obtained with pyridine, which was formed more readily in aqueous p Pyridine at pH 7 than at pH 5 and its yield increased with the concentration of pyrazine to a maximum at about 2M.
A glimpse of the early history of the cephalosporins.
  • E. Abraham
  • Biology
    Reviews of infectious diseases
  • 1979
A change in the attitude of the Government toward the application of academic research in the United Kingdom and the establishment of a National Research Development Corporation were responsible for certain differences between the commercial development of the cephalosporins and that of penicillin.
Cephalosporinase and penicillinase activities of a beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas pyocyanea.
The latter might show synergism with the enzyme inhibitors, methicillin and cloxacillin, against this organism, and it was concluded that the production of a beta-lactamase contributed to the factors responsible for the very high resistance of Ps.
Some biological properties of cephalosporin P1.
The cephalosporin used was lyophildried material that had been prepared by chromatography and countercurrent distribution between solvents and its purity was assessed by analysis of the curves obtained from the distribution experiments.
Antibiotic production by a species of Cephalosporium.
The antibacterial activity of a strain of a Cephalosporium sp.
Achievements and problems from the view of a physician.
  • L. Sabath
  • Medicine, Biology
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 1980
Major remaining problems limiting beta-lactam use are (1) allergy, (2) resistant organisms, (3) relatively poor entry into the cerebrospinal fluid (especially of cephalosporins,) some nephrotoxicity, (5) local irritation of veins and tissues during administration, and (6) poor results in patients with agranulocytosis.
Thienamycin: development of imipenem-cilastatin
The imipenem/cilastatin combination affords reliability and enhanced safety in the application of the antibiotic's unusual antibacterial potential in the treatment of difficult infections regardless of the site of disease.
Cephalosporin C, a New Antibiotic containing Sulphur and D-α-Aminoadipic Acid
A new antibiotic with an absorption maximum at 260 mμ has now been isolated from the crude preparations in the form of a crystalline sodium salt, which resembles cephalosporin N in certain physical, chemical and biological properties, but differs from it sharply in others.
Enzymatic acylation of monobactams.
The use of a penicillin acylase from Escherichia coli for generating various N-acyl monobactams is reported on.