Cephalopod origin and evolution: A congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules

  title={Cephalopod origin and evolution: A congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules},
  author={Bj{\"o}rn Kr{\"o}ger and Jakob Vinther and Dirk Fuchs},
Cephalopods are extraordinary molluscs equipped with vertebrate‐like intelligence and a unique buoyancy system for locomotion. A growing body of evidence from the fossil record, embryology and Bayesian molecular divergence estimations provides a comprehensive picture of their origins and evolution. Cephalopods evolved during the Cambrian (∼530 Ma) from a monoplacophoran‐like mollusc in which the conical, external shell was modified into a chambered buoyancy apparatus. During the mid‐Palaeozoic… 

Molecular clocks indicate turnover and diversification of modern coleoid cephalopods during the Mesozoic Marine Revolution

Divergence estimates highlight the modern diversity of coleoid cephalopods emerging in the Mesozoic Marine Revolution, a period that also witnessed the radiation of most ray-finned fish groups in addition to several other marine vertebrates.

The evolution of molluscs

Gene expression data indicate that key regulators involved in anterior–posterior patterning lost this function and were co‐opted into the evolution of taxon‐specific novelties in conchiferans, challenging traditional hypotheses that molluscs gradually evolved complex phenotypes from simple, worm‐like animals.

Evolutionary development of the cephalopod arm armature: a review

The conclusions challenge the widespread opinion, whereupon belemnoid hooks evolved de novo, and instead support earlier ideas formulated by Sigurd von Boletzky.

Nectocaridid ecology, diversity, and affinity: early origin of a cephalopod-like body plan

The morphology of the tentacles and fins are revised, and mouthparts and phosphatized gills are described for the first time, and a mathematical analysis supports the presence of the earliest known camera-type eyes, and fluid mechanical considerations suggest that the funnel is optimized for efficient jet propulsion in a low Reynolds number flow regime.

The origins of molluscs

Aplacophoran morphology therefore does not represent the plesiomorphic condition for molluscs as a whole, and the interrelationships among the conchiferan mollsuscs are still a matter of contention and require further palaeontological and molecular phylogenetic scrutiny.

A molecular palaeobiological perspective on aculiferan evolution

Both fossil data and molecular divergence estimates find that modern chitons (the crown group) originated in the Carboniferous period (about 340 Ma) and that the major group of chiton with slitted insertion plates (Chitonida) originatedIn the Permian (about 260–270 Ma).

An Ordovician nectocaridid hints at an endocochleate origin of Cephalopoda

A new nectocaridid is document from the Whetstone Gulf Formation, extending the group's range into the Late Ordovician and indicating a trend towards increased metabolic efficiency through the course of Cambrian–Ordovician evolution.

An Eocene orthocone from Antarctica shows convergent evolution of internally shelled cephalopods

This study presents the first evidence for an evolutionary lineage of internally shelled cephalopods with independent origin from Bactritoidea/Coleoidea, indicating convergent evolution with the subclass Coleoidesa.

The locomotion system of Mesozoic Coleoidea (Cephalopoda) and its phylogenetic significance

A morphological comparison of shell-muscle contacts in coleoid cephalopods mainly from the Early Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia Shales of Holzmaden (Germany), the Middle Jurassic (Callovian) Oxford

Proteroctopus ribeti in coleoid evolution

The phylogenetic analysis indicates that Proteroctopus is a basal member of the Vampyropoda, but this result should be interpreted with caution due to the number of unknown character states in the matrix.



Evolution of the cephalopod head complex by assembly of multiple molluscan body parts: Evidence from Nautilus embryonic development

The results demonstrate that the embryonic organs exhibit body plans that are primarily bilateral and antero‐posteriorly elongated at stereotyped positions, and suggest that extensions of the collar‐funnel compartment and free epidermal folds derived from multiple topological foot regions may play an important role in forming the head complex, which is thought to be an important feature during the body plan transition.

Primitive soft-bodied cephalopods from the Cambrian

This work reinterpretes the problematic Middle Cambrian animal Nectocaris pteryx as a primitive (that is, stem-group), non-mineralized cephalopod, based on new material from the Burgess Shale, and indicates that primitive cepinghalopods lacked a mineralized shell, were hyperbenthic, and were presumably carnivorous.

The origins of cephalopod body plans: A geometrical and developmental basis for the evolution of vertebrate-like organ systems

The cephalopod body plans are characterized, set against those of the other bilaterians, in the light of recent data from paleontology, embryology, and molecular gene expression patterns to provide a review and new interpretation with an emphasis on the topographic transition of the soft parts that is shaped by a shared concentric circle or ovoid pattern in the embryos and adults of extant or fossil molluscs.

Adaptive evolution in Paleozoic coiled cephalopods

  • B. Kröger
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2005
The general trends of decreasing mean origination and extinction rates during the Paleozoic are interpreted to reflect a successive stabilization of the coiled cephalopod assemblages.

Cephalopods present and past : new insights and fresh perspectives

Part I: Phylogeny and Systematics; part II: Morphology of Soft and Hard Tissues; part III: Biogeography, Biostratigraphy, Ecology, and Taphonomy.

Brachiopod Identity of the Alleged Monoplacophoran Ancestors of Cephalopods

  • J. Dzik
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2010
Musculature of Angarella in some aspects resembles that of the Early Cambrian mobergellans with phosphatic shells, but in the calcitic shell structure it is similar to the craniopsid brachiopods.

Divergence time estimates for major cephalopod groups: evidence from multiple genes

The data support a Paleozoic origin of the Orders Vampyromorpha, Octopoda and the majority of the extant higher level decapodiform taxa and appear to have been obscured due to an ancient diversification of this group.

The evolution of coleoid cephalopods and their present biodiversity and ecology

The roles that transitions between pelagic and benthic habitats played in the evolution of cephalopods are noted, and the possibility is advanced that the most recent "oceanic anoxic event" may have established a time marker for the divergence of some oegopsid families.

Advancing Research on Living and Fossil Cephalopods

also applied to exceptionally preserved Conobelus (Duvaliidae) collected by L.A. Doguzhaeva and collaborators from the Valanginian of the Crimean Peninsula. Their study reveals differences in

An Early Cambrian problematic fossil: Vetustovermis and its possible affinities

All the characters displayed in this 525 million-year old soft-bodied animal fail to demonstrate clear affinity with molluscs or any other known extant or extinct animal groups, but argue for representing an independently evolved animal group, which flourished in Early Cambrian and possibly in Middle Cambrian time.