Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion.

@article{Roefs2017CentralisedDO,
  title={Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion.},
  author={Ivar Roefs and Brendo Meulman and J. H. G. Vreeburg and Marc Spiller},
  journal={Water research},
  year={2017},
  volume={109},
  pages={274-286}
}
Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can take place by building small autonomous decentralised units that operate closer to the actual demand. Research has shown that variability and uncertainty in urban development does affect the cost… CONTINUE READING
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