Central sensitization in chronic pain and medically unexplained symptom research: A systematic review of definitions, operationalizations and measurement instruments.

@article{denBoer2019CentralSI,
  title={Central sensitization in chronic pain and medically unexplained symptom research: A systematic review of definitions, operationalizations and measurement instruments.},
  author={Carine den Boer and Linne Dries and Berend Terluin and Johannes C. van der Wouden and Annette H. Blankenstein and Cornelis P van Wilgen and Peter Lucassen and Henri{\"e}tte E. van der Horst},
  journal={Journal of psychosomatic research},
  year={2019},
  volume={117},
  pages={
          32-40
        }
}
Central Sensitization in Neurological, Psychiatric, and Pain Disorders: A Multicenter Case-Controlled Study
TLDR
The findings suggest that CSS may participate in refractory pain-related diseases as common pathophysiology as well as neurological, psychological, and pain disorders as normal.
Tests for central sensitization in general practice: a Delphi study
TLDR
An inventory of tests for measuring CS was made and three tests were considered to be suitable for use in general practice: the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI), pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) and monofilaments.
Central sensitization and functioning in patients with chronic low back pain: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study
TLDR
CS was weakly related to functioning, and decreases in CS were weakly-moderately related to increases in functioning.
Central sensitization inventory scores correlate with pain at rest in patients with hip osteoarthritis: a retrospective study
TLDR
In this study, 1 out of every 20 hip OA patients had CS components, and CSI scores were significantly correlated with pain at rest in Hip OApatients.
The Definition, Assessment, and Prevalence of (Human Assumed) Central Sensitisation in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review
TLDR
This review uncovered twenty quantitative methods to assess HACS, including four questionnaires and sixteen quantitative sensory testing measures, and found most of the assessment methods are not validated but have been tested for reliability and repeatability.
Pain at Rest as a Predictive Factor of Chronic Pain Related to Central Sensitization in Patients With Hip Osteoarthritis
TLDR
Twenty-one percent of the patients scheduled to undergo total hip arthroplasty for hip OA were diagnosed with chronic pain related to CS, which might influence the clinical results after THA.
Experiences of general practitioners explaining central sensitisation to patients with persistent physical symptoms: a focus group study
TLDR
The use of the CS model seemed to improve the understanding and acceptance of the symptoms by the patients and seemed to reduce their need for more diagnostic tests, and patients seemed to become more motivated to accept appropriate therapy.
Hyperalgesia and Central Sensitization in Subjects With Chronic Orofacial Pain: Analysis of Pain Thresholds and EEG Biomarkers
Introduction: The presence of a temporomandibular disorder is one of the most frequent causes of orofacial pain (OFP). When pain continues beyond tissue healing time, it becomes chronic and may be
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References

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TLDR
Overall results suggest that, although peripheral mechanisms are involved in OA pain, hypersensitivity of the CNS plays a significant role in a subgroup of subjects within this population of patients.
The Development and Psychometric Validation of the Central Sensitization Inventory
TLDR
2 studies demonstrate the psychometric strength, clinical utility, and the initial construct validity of the CSI in evaluating CS‐related clinical symptoms in chronic pain populations.
Ability of the Central Sensitization Inventory to Identify Central Sensitivity Syndromes in an Outpatient Chronic Pain Sample
TLDR
The CSI is a useful and valid instrument for screening patients for the possibility of a CSS, although the chances of false positives are relatively high when evaluating patients with complex pain and psychophysiological disorders.
Neurobiological Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Whiplash Associated Pain: The Peripheral Maintenance of Central Sensitization
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Central Sensitization and Altered Central Pain Processing in Chronic Low Back Pain: Fact or Myth?
TLDR
It is tempting to speculate that ongoing nociception is associated with cortical and subcortical reorganization and may play an important role in the process of the chronification of LBP.
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