Central nervous system circuits modified in heart failure: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications

@article{SousaPinto2014CentralNS,
  title={Central nervous system circuits modified in heart failure: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications},
  author={Bernardo Sousa-Pinto and Manuel J. Ferreira-Pinto and M{\'a}rio Santos and Adelino F Leite-Moreira},
  journal={Heart Failure Reviews},
  year={2014},
  volume={19},
  pages={759-779}
}
The pathophysiology of heart failure (HF) is characterized by an abnormal activation of neurohumoral systems, including the sympathetic nervous and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone systems, which have long-term deleterious effects on the disease progression. Perpetuation of this neurohumoral activation is partially dependent of central nervous system (CNS) pathways, mainly involving the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and some regions of the brainstem. Modifications in these… CONTINUE READING
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