Central Command Neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System: Basis of the Fight-or-Flight Response

  title={Central Command Neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System: Basis of the Fight-or-Flight Response},
  author={Arthur S. P Jansen and Xay Van Nguyen and Vladimir Karpitskiy and Thomas C. Mettenleiter and Arthur D. Loewy},
  pages={644 - 646}
During stress, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is changed in a global fashion, leading to an increase in cardiovascular function and a release of adrenal catecholamines. This response is thought to be regulated by a common set of brain neurons that provide a dual input to the sympathetic preganglionic neurons regulating cardiac and adrenal medullary functions. By using a double-virus transneuronal labeling technique, the existence of such a set of central autonomic neurons in the… 

Function and Pharmacology of Spinally-Projecting Sympathetic Pre-Autonomic Neurones in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus

The pharmacology of PVN spinally-projecting SPANs is described and their likely roles in cardiovascular control are discussed.

Differential control of sympathetic outflow.

  • S. Morrison
  • Biology, Psychology
    American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology
  • 2001
This review summarizes evidence for the existence of tissue-specific sympathetic output pathways, which are likely to include distinct populations of premotor neurons whose target specificity could be assessed using the functional fingerprints developed from characterizations of postganglionic efferents to known targets.

Sympathetic preganglionic neurons: properties and inputs.

This review considers the degree of complexity of sympathetic control occurring at the level of the spinal cord and the morphology and targets of SPNs illustrate the diversity within this group, as do their diverse intrinsic properties which reveal some functional significance of these properties.

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The overall organization of the peripheral autonomic nervous system has been known for many decades, but the mechanisms by which it is controlled by the central nervous system are just now coming to

Integrative Action of the Autonomic Nervous System: Neurobiology of Homeostasis

The Autonomic Nervous System: Functional Anatomy and Visceral Afferents and Integration of homeostatic regulations in upper brain stem and limbic-hypothalamic centres: a summary.

Central autonomic integration of psychological stressors: Focus on cardiovascular modulation

Sympathetic nervous system overactivity and its role in the development of cardiovascular disease.

This review examines how the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in the regulation of cardiovascular function over multiple time scales. This is achieved through differential regulation of

Selective neural regulation of epinephrine and norepinephrine cells in the adrenal medulla -- cardiovascular implications.

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  • Biology
    Clinical and experimental hypertension
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This review presents an emerging view that the selective control of EPI and NE cells is accounted for, first, by the existence of separate neural circuits between brain centers and the chromaffin cells, and second, through neuromodulation that selectively influences EPIand NE cells.

Regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity by the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus in normotensive and hypertensive states.

The molecular mechanisms underlying the presynaptic and postsynaptic alterations in GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension are discussed and the ability of exercise training to correct sympathetic hyperactivity is discussed.



Tonic vasomotor control by the rostral ventrolateral medulla: effect of electrical or chemical stimulation of the area containing C1 adrenaline neurons on arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamines and vasopressin

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    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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Neurons within the RVL, most probably C1 adrenaline- synthesizing neurons, exert an excitatory influence on sympathetic vasomotor fibers, the adrenal medulla, and the posterior pituitary, as well as under tonic inhibitory control, in part via GABAergic mechanisms.

Corticotropin-releasing factor induces differential behavioral and cardiovascular effects after intracerebroventricular and lateral hypothalamic/perifornical injections in rats.

The cardiovascular and behavioral effects of LH/PFx-CRF indicate that this region may be an important site for central CRF to produce stress-related autonomic and behavioral responses and suggests a dissociation of the peptide's central actions to influence behavioral and autonomic responses.

Pseudorabies virus: a highly specific transneuronal cell body marker in the sympathetic nervous system

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    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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Bartha's K strain of PRV is a specific transneuronal retrograde grader marker in the sympathetic nervous system of rats, and results suggest that a specific transfer of the virus to the preganglionic neurons occurred, possibly via a transsynaptic mechanism.