Central Command Neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System: Basis of the Fight-or-Flight Response

  title={Central Command Neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System: Basis of the Fight-or-Flight Response},
  author={Arthur S. P Jansen and Xay Van Nguyen and Vladimir Karpitskiy and Thomas C. Mettenleiter and Arthur D. Loewy},
  pages={644 - 646}
During stress, the activity of the sympathetic nervous system is changed in a global fashion, leading to an increase in cardiovascular function and a release of adrenal catecholamines. This response is thought to be regulated by a common set of brain neurons that provide a dual input to the sympathetic preganglionic neurons regulating cardiac and adrenal medullary functions. By using a double-virus transneuronal labeling technique, the existence of such a set of central autonomic neurons in the… Expand
Function and Pharmacology of Spinally-Projecting Sympathetic Pre-Autonomic Neurones in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus
The pharmacology of PVN spinally-projecting SPANs is described and their likely roles in cardiovascular control are discussed. Expand
Differential control of sympathetic outflow.
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This review summarizes evidence for the existence of tissue-specific sympathetic output pathways, which are likely to include distinct populations of premotor neurons whose target specificity could be assessed using the functional fingerprints developed from characterizations of postganglionic efferents to known targets. Expand
Selective activation of the sympathetic ganglia by centrally administered corticotropin-releasing factor in rats
The results suggest that brain CRF selectively regulates neuronal activity of each sympathetic ganglion, with more pronounced effect on the celiac ganglions. Expand
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The overall organization of the peripheral autonomic nervous system has been known for many decades, but the mechanisms by which it is controlled by the central nervous system are just now coming toExpand
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons: properties and inputs.
This review considers the degree of complexity of sympathetic control occurring at the level of the spinal cord and the morphology and targets of SPNs illustrate the diversity within this group, as do their diverse intrinsic properties which reveal some functional significance of these properties. Expand
Central autonomic integration of psychological stressors: Focus on cardiovascular modulation
Recent observations of autonomic flow, cardiovascular components in particular, during psychological stress and the possible implications these may have for the understanding of the central nervous system are discussed. Expand
Integrative Action of the Autonomic Nervous System: Neurobiology of Homeostasis
The Autonomic Nervous System: Functional Anatomy and Visceral Afferents and Integration of homeostatic regulations in upper brain stem and limbic-hypothalamic centres: a summary. Expand
Selective neural regulation of epinephrine and norepinephrine cells in the adrenal medulla -- cardiovascular implications.
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This review presents an emerging view that the selective control of EPI and NE cells is accounted for, first, by the existence of separate neural circuits between brain centers and the chromaffin cells, and second, through neuromodulation that selectively influences EPIand NE cells. Expand
Sympathetic nervous system overactivity and its role in the development of cardiovascular disease.
This review examines how the sympathetic nervous system plays a major role in the regulation of cardiovascular function over multiple time scales. This is achieved through differential regulation ofExpand
Central control of the cardiovascular and erection systems: possible mechanisms and interactions.
The role of nitric oxide, synthesized and released by different cell populations, has been evaluated in the brain and spinal control of the cardiovascular system and penile erection. Expand


Effects of chemical stimulation of paraventricular nucleus on adrenal and renal nerve activity in rats
The effects of stimulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) by L-glutamate by microinjection of excitatory amino acid into the unilateral PVN resulted in an increase in the ipsilateral adrenal nerve activity, while it resulted in decreases in renal nerve activity and arterial blood pressure. Expand
Comparison of the influence of rostral and caudal raphe neurons on the adrenal secretion of catecholamines and on the release of adrenocorticotropin in the cat
The results indicated that glutamate activation of neurons within different raphe nuclei evoked non‐uniform effects on neuroendocrine and autonomic function, suggesting that the neural substrate underlying the control of the adrenal secretion of catecholamines and of the release of ACTH in response to activation of raphe neurons is likely distinct from that which contributes to the descending influence on nociceptive input to the medullary and spinal dorsal horn. Expand
Spinal origin of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the rat
The segmental distribution of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) and dorsal root ganglion cells (DRGs) was studied after Fluoro-gold injections into the major sympathetic ganglia and adrenal gland in rats and four general patterns of innervation were apparent. Expand
Tonic vasomotor control by the rostral ventrolateral medulla: effect of electrical or chemical stimulation of the area containing C1 adrenaline neurons on arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma catecholamines and vasopressin
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Neurons within the RVL, most probably C1 adrenaline- synthesizing neurons, exert an excitatory influence on sympathetic vasomotor fibers, the adrenal medulla, and the posterior pituitary, as well as under tonic inhibitory control, in part via GABAergic mechanisms. Expand
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The origins and organization of cardiac sympathetic postganglionic nerves in the rat were identified in the present investigation. The retrograde tracer, Diamidino Yellow, was injected into the rightExpand
Innervation patterns of the middle cervical - stellate ganglion complex in the rat
The present evidence indicates that the middle cervical-stellate ganglion complex in the rat projects to a rather limited number of peripheral organs and produces more selective cardiac sympathectomy than 6-hydroxydopamine. Expand
CNS cell groups regulating the sympathetic outflow to adrenal gland as revealed by transneuronal cell body labelling with pseudorabies virus
The CNS cell groups that innervate the sympathoadrenal preganglionic neurons of rats were identified by a transneuronal viral cell body labeling technique combined with neurotransmitter immunohistochemistry and these results imply there are local interneurons that regulate the sympathetic neurons. Expand
Corticotropin-releasing factor induces differential behavioral and cardiovascular effects after intracerebroventricular and lateral hypothalamic/perifornical injections in rats.
The cardiovascular and behavioral effects of LH/PFx-CRF indicate that this region may be an important site for central CRF to produce stress-related autonomic and behavioral responses and suggests a dissociation of the peptide's central actions to influence behavioral and autonomic responses. Expand
Transneuronal labeling of CNS neuropeptide and monoamine neurons after pseudorabies virus injections into the stellate ganglion
This study provides the first detailed map of the chemically-coded CNS neurons involved in the control of the cardiosympathetic outflow using the viral transneuronal labeling method to identify CNS neuropeptide and monoamine neurons that innervate the sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs). Expand
Specificity of pseudorabies virus as a retrograde marker of sympathetic preganglionic neurons: implications for transneuronal labeling studies
These experiments established that PRV infections of one functional class of SPNs did not produce infections in nearby, functionally unrelated SPNs and did not cause a reduction in the SPN cell population, except under conditions of severe gliosis, and increased the probability that Bartha PRV may be used as a specific retrograde transneuronal marker of central autonomic pathways. Expand