Cellular neuroadaptations to chronic opioids: tolerance, withdrawal and addiction.

@article{Christie2008CellularNT,
  title={Cellular neuroadaptations to chronic opioids: tolerance, withdrawal and addiction.},
  author={Macdonald J Christie},
  journal={British journal of pharmacology},
  year={2008},
  volume={154 2},
  pages={
          384-96
        }
}
A large range of neuroadaptations develop in response to chronic opioid exposure and these are thought to be more or less critical for expression of the major features of opioid addiction: tolerance, withdrawal and processes that may contribute to compulsive use and relapse. This review considers these adaptations at different levels of organization in the nervous system including tolerance at the mu-opioid receptor itself, cellular tolerance and withdrawal in opioid-sensitive neurons, systems… CONTINUE READING
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