Influence of microelement concentration on the intensity of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the degeneration and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. It has been suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in the etiology and progression of PD. For instance, low levels of endogenous antioxidants, increased reactive species, augmented dopamine oxidation, and high iron levels have been found in brains from PD patients. In vitro and in vivo studies of Parkinson models evaluating natural and endogenous antioxidants such as polyphenols, coenzyme Q10, and vitamins A, C, and E have shown protective effects against oxidative-induced neuronal death. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms by which polyphenols and endogenous antioxidants can produce protection. Some of the mechanisms reviewed include: scavenging nitrogen and oxygen reactive species, regulation of signaling pathways associated with cell survival and inflammation, and inhibition of synphilin-1 and alpha-synuclein aggregation.