Cell-type specific protein binding to the enhancer of simian virus 40 in nuclear extracts

@article{Davidson1986CelltypeSP,
  title={Cell-type specific protein binding to the enhancer of simian virus 40 in nuclear extracts},
  author={I. Davidson and Catherine Fromental and Patrick Augereau and Alan G. Wildeman and Martin Zenke and Pierre Chambon},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1986},
  volume={323},
  pages={544-548}
}
Enhancers are cis-acting activators of transcription from homologous or heterologous promoter elements of viral and cellular genes (see refs 1–6 for reviews). The activity of the simian virus 40 (SV40) (refs 7–9) and immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (IgH) (refs 10, 11) enhancers has been reproduced to some extent in vitro and appears to be mediated by trans-acting factors both in vitro7–11 and in vivo12,13. The SV40 enhancer consists of multiple sequence motifs in two domains, A and B (Fig. 1… 
In vitro binding of several cell-specific and ubiquitous nuclear proteins to the GT-I motif of the SV40 enhancer.
TLDR
The good correlation between the known cell-specific in vivo activity of the wild-type and mutated GT-I motif and the cell- specific binding of protein GT-IC in vitro strongly supports the conclusion that this protein is an enhancer factor.
Capturing nuclear sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins by using simian virus 40-derived minichromosomes
TLDR
It is shown that the transcription factors AP-1 and Sp1 are stably bound to the SV40 DNA late in viral infection and may play a role in regulating the rINS1 enhancer function.
Regulation of SV40 early gene expression.
  • A. Wildeman
  • Biology
    Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire
  • 1988
TLDR
This article summarizes recent observations that have led to the conclusion that the SV40 promoter, and particularly, the enhancer region, is composed of multiple sequence elements.
Involvement of the Ets Family Factor PU.1 in the Activation of Immunoglobulin Promoters (*)
TLDR
This study has analyzed the factors binding specifically to the pyrimidine-rich motif of the Vκ19 promoter, a light chain gene promoter with an imperfect octamer site, and shows that PU.1 is indeed able to activate this promoter in concert with Oct-2, and can bind concomitantly but without synergism.
Enhancer binding factors AP-4 and AP-1 act in concert to activate SV40 late transcription in vitro
TLDR
By manipulating the levels of different trans-acting factors in vitro, this work can recreate the pattern of SV40 late initiation observed during the viral lytic cycle in vivo.
Functional mapping of the human papillomavirus type 11 transcriptional enhancer and its interaction with the trans-acting E2 proteins.
TLDR
It is concluded that E2 proteins activate the enhancer by binding directly to the E2-RS and interacting with other transcriptional factors and that the sequence ACCN6GGT is both necessary and sufficient for the E 2 protein binding in vitro and for activation of RNA transcription in vivo.
Negative regulation of the human polyomavirus BK enhancer involves cell-specific interaction with a nuclear repressor
TLDR
It is demonstrated that binding of a nuclear factor(s) to the HeLa cell-specific site is involved in the repression of enhancer activity.
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References

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A nuclear factor that binds to a conserved sequence motif in transcriptional control elements of immunoglobulin genes
TLDR
It is reported here the identification of a human B-cell nuclear factor (IgNF-A) that binds to DNA sequences in the upstream regions of both the mouse heavy and κ light-chain gene promoters and also to the mouseHeavychain gene enhancer.
Specific protein binding to the simian virus 40 enhancer in vitro
TLDR
HeLa cell nuclear extracts and wild-type or mutated simian virus 40 enhancer DNA used in DNase I footprinting experiments are shown to contain proteins that bind to the multiple enhancer motifs, suggesting that the bound proteins correspond to trans-acting factors involved in enhancement of transcription.
A viral enhancer element specifically active in human haematopoietic cells
TLDR
The identification of a viral enhancer element possessing a very restricted tissue range is reported, active in all human cells of the haematopoetic system tested, but not in cells of fibroblast or epithelial origin.
The mouse immunoglobulin heavy‐chain enhancer: effect on transcription in vitro and binding of proteins present in HeLa and lymphoid B cell extracts.
TLDR
DNase I footprint and DMS‐methylation protection experiments indicate that each cell type contains proteins which bind to specific sequences of the IgH enhancer, and the relationship between the binding of these proteins and the preferential activity of the antibody enhancer in B cells is discussed.
Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression by transactivating proteins and cis acting DNA elements
TLDR
The nature of the positive regulation exerted by adenovirus, herpes virus or papova immediate early proteins, which can activate homologous promoters can also stimulate transcription from cellular promoters present on transfected DNA is discussed.
Stimulation of in vitro transcription from the SV40 early promoter by the enhancer involves a specific trans‐acting factor.
TLDR
A nuclear extract prepared from HeLa cells has been used to study in vitro the transcription of the SV40 early promoter, and a competition assay indicates that the stimulation by the enhancer is due to a specific trans‐acting factor which acts on it.
B lineage--specific interactions of an immunoglobulin enhancer with cellular factors in vivo.
TLDR
There are changes in the reactivity of guanine residues to dimethyl sulfate within the enhancer sequence in myeloma, B, and early B cells, whereas virtually no alterations appear in cells of non-B lineage.
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