Cell suicide for beginners

  title={Cell suicide for beginners},
  author={Martin C. Raff},
  • M. Raff
  • Published 12 November 1998
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Nature
The ability to commit suicide is a fundamental property of animal cells. This overview considers recent progress in understanding the nature of the suicide process and how it is controlled. 
Apoptosis: Repulsive encounters
In multicellular organisms, cells are often required to die. They are then eaten by 'phagocytic' cells. But how do the phagocytes distinguish between dead and living prey? New work provides an
Caspases: key players in programmed cell death.
  • M. Grütter
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current opinion in structural biology
  • 2000
Understanding of the structure, function and specificity of these enzymes provides a basis for the further elucidation of the biological role of caspases and a guide to the design of selective inhibitors to treat caspase-mediated diseases.
A Portrait of the Bcl-2 Protein Family: Life, Death, and the Whole Picture
The Bcl-2 family of proteins are important regulators of cell death. They are comprised of two opposing factions, the proapoptotic versus the antiapoptotic members. Both are required for normal
Hormonal regulation of radical-induced programmed cell death in ozone-sensitive mutants of
Finland Academic dissertation To be presented for public criticism, with permission of the University of Helsinki.
Divergence from a dedicated cellular suicide mechanism: exploring the evolution of cell death.
Evidence suggests that evolution has led to an extensive integration of mammalian apoptosis machinery with multiple cellular physiological processes in higher organisms, including mammals.
Die and let live - programmed cell death in plants.
The mitochondrion has emerged in both plant and animal systems as a 'central depot' that interprets multiple signals and in some instances determines the fate of the cell.
Pheromone Induces Programmed Cell Death in S. cerevisiae
A typical scenario for programmed cell death development includes activation of the MAP kinase cascade, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm as a consequence of opening the permeability transition pore in the mitochondrial membrane, and activation of caspases.
Natural conditions inducing programmed cell death in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
By correctly deducing the physiological situation(s) for yeast to undergo cell death, one can not only improve the efficiency of yeast as model system for apoptotic studies, but also obtain a certain insight into the survival strategies of communities of organisms.
Leishmania infection inhibits cycloheximide-induced macrophage apoptosis in a strain-dependent manner.
Leishmania infection protects macrophages from cycloheximide-induced apoptosis in a species and strain specific manner and reveals that Leishmania phosphoglycans and direct contact between parasites and host cells are required for the inhibitory phenotype.
Death-defying immunity: do apoptotic cells influence antigen processing and presentation?
  • M. Albert
  • Biology, Medicine
    Nature Reviews Immunology
  • 2004
The possible immunological instructions that are delivered by dying cells, as influenced by the specific execution pathways that are active during programmed cell death are explored.


Social controls on cell survival and cell death
  • M. Raff
  • Biology, Medicine
  • 1992
For some mammalian cells, programmed death seems to occur by default unless suppressed by signals from other cells, so dependence on specific survival signals provides a simple way to eliminate misplaced cells, for regulating cell numbers and, perhaps, for selecting the fittest cells.
Decreased apoptosis in the brain and premature lethality in CPP32-deficient mice
CPP32 is shown to play a critical role during morphogenetic cell death in the mammalian brain during embryonic day 12, resulting in a variety of hyperplasias and disorganized cell deployment.
A caspase-activated DNase that degrades DNA during apoptosis, and its inhibitor ICAD
A caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease (CAD) and its inhibitor (ICAD) have now been identified in the cytoplasmic fraction of mouse lymphoma cells and seems to function as a chaperone for CAD during its synthesis, remaining complexed with CAD to inhibit its DNase activity.
Caenorhabditis elegans CED-9 protein is a bifunctional cell-death inhibitor
It is shown that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene ced-9 prevents cells from undergoing programmed cell death and encodes a protein similar to the mammalian cell-death inhibitor Bcl-2, a member of a family of cysteine proteases first defined by CED-3 and human interleukin-1β converting enzyme (ICE).
Blocking apoptosis prevents blindness in Drosophila retinal degeneration mutants
Investigation of the mechanism of cell death in two Drosophila mutant strains that exhibit age-related retinal degeneration found that retinal cell death occurred by apoptosis and was blocked by eye-specific expression of the baculoviral cell survival protein p35.