Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Induced by Glucose Variability
Supplementation with low doses of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid was used here to investigate changes in epithelial proliferation’ differentiation’ and apoptosis in normal rat colonic mucosa. ACI/T rats received by oral administration low doses of purified EPA or DHA ethyl esters (1g/kg body weight) and colonic mucosa was analyzed for cell proliferation’ differentiation’ and apoptosis. n−3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid incorporation into membrane phospholipids was investigated as reflections of fatty acid metabolism. Both EPA and DHA suppressed colonocyle proliferation and increased the numbers of differentiating and apoptotic cells without modification of the crypt morphology and the number of cells per crypt columns. A significant incorporation of the supplemented fatty acids into total phospholipids was observed. This enrichment was accompanied by a decreased content in arachidonic acid. The observation that EPA and DHA do not alter crypt morphology although they modify cell turnover in normal colonic mucosa suggests a possible use of these fatty acids as dietary chemopreventive agents.