Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) so that glutamatergic modulation maybe a potential therapeutic target for PD. Ceftriaxone (CEF) has been reported to increase glutamate uptake by increasing glutamate transporter expression and has been demonstrated neuroprotective effects in animal study. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of CEF on behavior and neurogenesis in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD rat model. MPTP was stereotaxically injected into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of male Wistar rats. Starting on the same day after MPTP lesioning (day 0), the rats were injected daily with either CEF or saline for 14days and underwent a T-maze test on days 8-10 and an object recognition test on days 12-14, then the brain was taken for histological evaluation on day 15. The results showed that MPTP lesioning resulted in decreased motor function, working memory, and object recognition and reduced neurogenesis in the substantial nigra and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These behavioral and neuronal changes were prevented by CEF treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that CEF prevents loss of neurogenesis in the brain of PD rats. CEF may therefore have clinical potential in the treatment of PD.