Cd-free 5×5cm2-sized Cu2ZnSnS4 submodules

  title={Cd-free 5×5cm2-sized Cu2ZnSnS4 submodules},
  author={Homare Hiroi and Noriyuki Sakai and Hiroki Sugimoto},
  journal={2011 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference},
An efficiency of 2.01% on a 5×5cm2-sized Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin-film submodule is achieved. This is the first submodule by Solar Frontier that does not use In, Se and Cd. For fabrication, vacuum-based processes are used to deposit the Mo back electrode and the metal precursor. The CZTS absorber layer is formed through high-temperature annealing with sulfur containing gas. The Zn-based buffer layer and the ZnO window layer are then deposited by chemical bath deposition and metal-organic chemical… CONTINUE READING
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