Causes of the genetic architecture of south-west European high mountain disjuncts

  title={Causes of the genetic architecture of south-west European high mountain disjuncts},
  author={Matthias Kropf and Hans Peter Comes and Joachim W. Kadereit},
  journal={Plant Ecology \& Diversity},
  pages={217 - 228}
Background: Postglacial climatic warming in south-western Europe and the retreat of cold-adapted species into higher elevations, starting in the Sierra Nevada and proceeding northwards to the Pyrenees and Alps, should have resulted in a pattern of ‘successive vicariance’. Alternatively, long-distance dispersal might explain the extant distribution pattern of mountain species in this region. Aims: Here, we report an investigation of two alpine plants, Saxifraga oppositifolia and S. stellaris… 
Genetic structure of the endemic Papaver occidentale indicates survival and immigration in the Western Prealps
All known native populations of a narrow endemic species from the northwestern Alps, Papaver occidentale, as well as closely related taxa with double digest restriction-site Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing are sampled and genotyped to address the evolutionary history of such a ‘glacial relict’.
Genetic diversity of mountain plants: two migration episodes of Mediterranean Erodium (Geraniaceae).
Phylogeographical structure of a narrow endemic plant in an isolated high-mountain range
The Last Glacial history of C. tatrae was characterized by vertical movements and isolation in peripheral, periglacial microrefugia where the conditions were cold and moist, and subsequent postglacial upslope movements, together with poor dispersal and little gene flow resulted in several genetic lineages distributed longitudinally along the Tatra Mts.
Genetic structure of the shrub Daphne laureola across the Baetic Ranges, a Mediterranean glacial refugium and biodiversity hotspot.
Results suggest that studies on phenotypic differentiation between core and marginal populations of D. laureola, and presumably other species having discontinuous distributions across the Baetic ranges, should take into account geographical differences in levels of genetic differentiation between the different distribution borders.
History, evolution and future of arctic and alpine flora: overview
The fusion of recent fossil, molecular and ecological evidence has advanced the understanding of events that moulded the origin and composition of arctic and alpine floras, and a brief assessment of the future of these floras in a rapidly warming world is made.
Southern European glacial refugia: A tale of tales
Interpretations of current diversity patterns based on the contraction/expansion model forced by climatic oscillations during the last two million years are commonplace in phylogeographic literature.
Ecological rather than geographical isolation dominates Quaternary formation of Mediterranean Cistus species
Comparative phylogeography of the Cistus species leads us to interpret a general pattern of active colonization surpassing Mediterranean barriers, and provides molecular evidence for multiple colonization patterns in the course of successful adaptation of Cistsus species to Mediterranean habitats.
Geographical speciation related to Pleistocene range shifts in the western Mediterranean mountains (Reseda sect. Glaucoreseda, Resedaceae)
The results support the vicariance hypothesis for population disjunctions in the Iberian Peninsula, in which an ancestral, widespread species could have undergone differentiation by Quaternary interglacial fragmentation, and indicate a late Pleistocene diversification of R. sect.


Long-distance dispersal vs vicariance: the origin and genetic diversity of alpine plants in the Spanish Sierra Nevada.
Sierra Nevada populations of all species investigated here preserve unexpectedly high genetic diversity, which testifies to the important influence of long-term isolation, i.e. vicariance, on genetic diversity through fostering the accumulation of new mutations and/or the fixation of ancestral ones.
Genetic consequences of Pleistocene range shifts: contrast between the Arctic, the Alps and the East African mountains
The genetic structure observed corresponded to the expectations based on the environmental history of the different regions, and the fragmented structure in the European and African mountains indicated that A. alpina disperses little among established populations.
Spatial and temporal patterns in the evolution of the flora of the European Alpine System
It is concluded that one major challenge to future evolutionary studies in European mountain plants is the accurate and reliable reconstruction of the tempo and mode of speciation across Quaternary time scales.
Molecular evidence for glacial refugia of mountain plants in the European Alps
A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns with geological and palaeoenvironmental data demonstrates that glacial refugia were located along the southwestern, southern, eastern and northern border of the Alps, which implies that evolutionary or biogeographic processes induced by climatic fluctuations act on gene and species diversity in a similar way.
Out of the Alps: colonization of Northern Europe by East Alpine populations of the Glacier Buttercup Ranunculus glacialis L. (Ranunculaceae)
The authors' data suggest that the Pyrenees were colonized more recently than the Tatra from the Alps, and it is very likely that R. glacialis colonized Northern Europe in postglacial times from source populations in the Eastern Alps.
Differential cycles of range contraction and expansion in European high mountain plants during the Late Quaternary: insights from Pritzelago alpina (L.) O. Kuntze (Brassicaceae)
Comparison with the previous ITS/AFLP study of Anthyllis montana (Fabaceae) indicates that the two co‐distributed but altitudinally differentiated plant species exhibit temporally concordant but spatially discordant patterns of genetic variation.
Historical biogeography of a disjunctly distributed, Spanish alpine plant, Senecio boissieri (Asteraceae)
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chloroplast microsatellite variation were surveyed in the Spanish alpine endemic, Senecio boissieri, to resolve the causes of its disjunct distribution in the southern Sierra Nevada and Baza, centrally located Sierra Guadarrama, and northern Cordillera Cantabrica.
Alpines, trees, and refugia in Europe
Refugia were critically important for species survival in both glacial and interglacial stages of the Quaternary. The classical view of glacial stages is that alpine and arctic plants were widespread
Glacial‐induced altitudinal migrations in Armeria (Plumbaginaceae) inferred from patterns of chloroplast DNA haplotype sharing
It is argued that altitudinal migrations within the contraction–expansion model provide the best explanation for the current pattern, and that at least in one case it resulted in the formation of a new hybrid taxon, A. filicaulis ssp.
Cryptic northern refugia and the origins of the modern biota