Causes of status epilepticus

  title={Causes of status epilepticus},
  author={Eugen Trinka and Julia H{\"o}fler and Alexander Zerbs},
Status epilepticus (SE) is the most extreme form of epilepsy. It describes a prolonged seizure that may occur in patients with previous epilepsy or in acute disorders of the central nervous system. It is one of the most common neurologic emergencies, with an incidence of up to 41 per 100,000 per year and an estimated mortality is 20%. The three major determinants of prognosis are the duration of SE, patient age, and the underlying cause. Common and easily recognized causes of SE include… 

Etiological assessment of status epilepticus.

Clinical Features of Refractory Status Epilepticus in Various Conditions

Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a group of clinical manifestations that are caused by a variety of pathologies, and most result from acute serious brain injury, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, autoimmune encephalitis, and infectiousEncephalitis.

Clinical features associated with convulsive status epilepticus in patients with epilepsy

There is a clear relationship between the occurrence of SE and mental retardation and treatment with polytherapy in patients with epilepsy, and Symptomatic/cryptogenic etiology, early onset of epilepsy, high frequency of seizures and presence of abnormalities in neuroimaging are associated with SE.

Status epilepticus.

Updates on classification and management of status epilepticus

Over time, major progress has been made in defining, classifying, and understanding of Status epilepticus mechanisms; despite this, the first-line drug management is ineffective in up to 40% of patients with SE and the super-refractory SE treatment is still unknown.

Management of Status Epilepticus, Refractory Status Epilepticus, and Super-refractory Status Epilepticus

The current knowledge about status epilepticus allows for a more reliable diagnosis, earlier treatment, and improved cerebral imaging of its consequences, which is a soft tool for estimating the need for intensive care resources.

Management of Autoimmune Status Epilepticus

The goal is to maximize the effectiveness of anticonvulsant agents and find an optimal combination of therapies while undergoing immunomodulatory therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality.



Uncommon causes of status epilepticus

It is often stated first that any disorder of the cerebral gray matter can result in epilepsy or status epilepticus (SE), and second, that any cause of epilepsy can also result in SE; both statements

Status epilepticus. Causes, clinical features and consequences in 98 patients.

Status epilepticus: Epidemiologic considerations

Status epilepticus (SE) will occur in 50,000 to 60,000 individuals in the United States annually: one third as the presenting symptom in patients with a 1st unprovoked seizure or with epilepsy, one

Status Epilepticus in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

Summary:  Status epilepticus (SE) can take various forms in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), some of which forms also occur in symptomatic or focal epilepsies. Although the clinical semiology

Non-convulsive status epilepticus: causes, treatment, and outcome in 65 patients.

Focal clinical signs were more frequent in CPSE; a fluctuating level of consciousness was more often present in ASE; and in three patients inadequate treatment probably contributed to morbidity.

Determinants of Mortality in Status Epilepticus

These findings represent the first multivariate analysis of predictive indicators of mortality in SE and demonstrate that specific factors influence mortality rate in SE.

Prognosis of status epilepticus: role of aetiology, age, and consciousness impairment at presentation

Surviving a first SE episode could lower the mortality and morbidity of subsequent episodes, suggesting that underlying aetiology, rather than SE per se, is the major determinant of outcome.

Predictors and prognosis of refractory status epilepticus treated in a neurological intensive care unit

Prevention of this most severe form of SE treated in the NICU is frequently refractory to first line anticonvulsant drugs, which is associated with markedly poor outcome, in particular, the development of post-SE symptomatic epilepsy.

Clinical and physiological features of epilepsia partialis continua. Cases ascertained in the UK.

It is proposed that the definition of EPC is best restricted to "continuous muscle jerks of cortical origin', and continuous muscle jerking that arises from other sites in the nervous system should be termed "myoclonia continua'.

Epilepsia partialis continua—a clinical and electroencephalography study

Cognitive decline, motor deficits and pharmacoresistance to drugs were significantly seen among children with Type 2 EPC, and patients with Type 1 EPC had mild impairment of functional status with good response to treatment.