The review article describes aetiology and treatment of dental root hypersensitivity. The three main theories of pain transduction from the exposed dentin surface to pain receptors in dental pulp are described. In addition, therapeutic compounds used to stimulate reparatory dentin formation and mineralization of peritubular dentin are described as well. The application of resins and adhesives on exposed dentin root surfaces is advocated in cases of chronic hypersensitivity. Finally, the authors emphasize the need for correct oral hygiene and early orthodontic treatment, if indicated, to prevent gingival recession and hypersensitivity of exposed root surfaces.