Causes and Mechanisms of Common Coccydynia: Role of Body Mass Index and Coccygeal Trauma

  title={Causes and Mechanisms of Common Coccydynia: Role of Body Mass Index and Coccygeal Trauma},
  author={Jean-Yves Maigne and Levon Doursounian and Gilles Chatellier},
Study Design. A total of 208 consecutive coccydynia patients were examined with the same clinical and radiologic protocol. Objectives. To study radiographic coccygeal lesions in the sitting position, to elucidate the influence of body mass index on the different lesions, and to establish the effect of coccygeal trauma. Summary of Background Data. A protocol comparing standing radiographs and radiographs subsequently taken in the painful sitting position in coccydynia patients and in controls… 

A clinical and radiological study of nontraumatic coccygodynia in Indian population

The sagittal movement of extension, posterior subluxation, higher BA, and low APR are the radiological findings seen in patients of nontraumatic coccygodynia, and a treatment algorithm for these patients was proposed.

Surgical treatment of coccygodynia: an analytic review of the literature

A systematic review of the results of surgical treatment of coccygectomy in patients with coccygodynia from January 1980 to January 2010 found that patients with history of spinal or rectal disorders, as well as idiopathic or with compensation issues, had less predictable outcome than those withhistory of trauma or childbirth.

A treatment and outcomes analysis of patients with coccydynia.

Clinical decision making for the evaluation and management of coccydynia: 2 case reports.

  • L. MarinkoM. Pecci
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy
  • 2014
The patient with traumatic onset of symptoms had almost complete resolution of symptoms, whereas the patient with a nontraumatic onset only had temporary relief, and this patient required further diagnostic examination and surgical excision.

The Surgical Role in the Management of Persistent Coccygodynia in Adolescent and Pediatric Patients: A Retrospective Case Series

  • M. Shalaby
  • Medicine
    HSS journal : the musculoskeletal journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
  • 2022
It is suggested that coccygectomy may be a feasible management option for pediatric and adolescent patients, with favorable outcomes including pain relief, patient or parent satisfaction, and early return to activity.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Morphology and Morphometry of the Coccyx in Coccydynia

This is the most detailed comparison of coccygeal morphology and morphometry in adults with and without coccydynia investigated using cross-sectional imaging and yielded sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of 72, 71, and 73%, respectively in females and 52, 92%, and 73, respectively in males.

Coccydynia: an overview of the anatomy, etiology, and treatment of coccyx pain.

A multidisciplinary approach employing physical therapy, ergonomic adaptations, medications, injections, and, possibly, psychotherapy leads to the greatest chance of success in patients with refractory coccyx pain.

Coccygectomy for patients with chronic coccydynia: a prospective, observational study of 98 patients.

Coccygectomy for chronic coccydynia results in significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes at two years, and failure is associated with certain pre-operative characteristics such as psychiatric illness, poor quality of life features, higher levels of pain, and use of opiates.

Coccygeoplasty: preliminary experience with this new alternative treatment of refractory coccydynia in patients with coccyx hypermobility

Patients with refractory painful coccyx subluxation and hypermobility undergoing CP have a favorable clinical response at 3- and 12-months' follow-up, and Coccygeoplasty may be considered a reasonable alternative to coccygectomy.

The coccyx in clinical medicine

Initial treatment begins with a coccygeal or doughnut cushion, heat, ice, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medications, and physical therapy and manual manipulation may also be of benefit, if there is no improvement.



Standardized Radiologic Protocol for the Study of Common Coccygodynia and Characteristics of the Lesions Observed in the Sitting Position: Clinical Elements Differentiating Luxation, Hypermobility, and Normal Mobility

To standardize the radiologic protocol to better define normal and abnormal mobility of the coccyx, and to study clinical parameters useful in classifying and differentiating the lesions, dynamic radiographic imagery was underwent to standardize and individualize two distinct coccygeal lesions: luxation and hypermobility.

Idiopathic Coccygodynia Lateral Roentgenograms in the Sitting Position and Coccygeal Discography

This study analyzed the motion of the painful coccyx in the sitting position as compared with the lateral decubitus in a patient and a control group and reported the first results of coccygeal discography (dynamic study).

Instability of the coccyx in coccydynia.

A study to validate an objective criterion for patient selection, namely radiological instability of the coccyx as judged by intermittent subluxation or hypermobility seen on lateral dynamic radiographs when sitting, is described.


  • F. Stern
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
  • 1967
Before assigning the diagnosis of a benign lesion in a case of coccygodynia, the differential diagnosis should include: collapse of the lumbosacral disc in the midline with resulting pressure on the sacrococcygeal nerves and pain in the coccyx, chordoma in thesacrococ cyst area, tumor of the cauda equina, perirectal abscess, fistula, and pilonidal cyst.

Coccydynia. Aetiology and treatment.

The condition is genuine and distressing and the cause lies in some localised musculoskeletal abnormality in the coccygeal region and there is no evidence of neurosis in patients.

Prevalence of obesity: a comparative survey in France, the United Kingdom and the United States.

In men, prevalence of Obesity remained significantly higher in the USA than in France or in the UK when adjusting for the obesity-related factors, and in women, differences in prevalence of obesity between the three countries varied according to the level of exercise, income and alcohol consumption.

Idiopathic coccygodynia. Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx.

The normal radiographic anatomy of the coccyx was studied in 120 asymptomatic subjects and a retrospective review of the results in fifty-one patients who had had a partial or total coccygectomy for idiopathic coccygodynia during a twenty-year period, finding most subjects had a Type-I configuration.

The painful coccyx

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The bone named for a bird. Spine 1995;20:379–83

  • 1995