Causes and Consequences of Variation in Parental Defense Behavior by Tree Swallows

@article{Winkler1992CausesAC,
  title={Causes and Consequences of Variation in Parental Defense Behavior by Tree Swallows},
  author={David W. Winkler},
  journal={The Condor},
  year={1992},
  volume={94},
  pages={502-520}
}
In a three-year experimental study of parental defense behavior in Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), I presented live ferrets and rat snakes to parents in the vicinity of 113 nests on the 13th and 14th day after chick-hatching. Sex of the defending parent and the identity of the predator being defended against were the most significant determinants of variation in the 13 aspects of parental defense behavior measured. Males defended more aggressively than did females. This may be a correlate… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

INVESTMENT IN NEST DEFENSE BY NORTHERN FLICKERS: EFFECTS OF AGE AND SEX
TLDR
It is concluded that the sexes may exhibit similar levels of defense because they have similar apparent annual survival rates and males are only slightly larger than females and adult body size and condition also were not related to defense intensity. Expand
Nest defense and parental investment in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia)
TLDR
Parents tended to approach observers less closely and alarm-call less as the breeding season progressed, indicating a modest seasonal decline in parental nest defense, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the reproductive value of offspring influenced parental defense behaviour. Expand
Parental Investment Theory and Nest Defense by Eastern Kingbirds
TLDR
Kingbird nest defense is a repeatable behavior that differs between males and females and, as predicted by parental investment theory, nests of the greatest value (older young and earlier broods) were defended most aggressively. Expand
Repeatable nest defense behavior in a wild population of Eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) as evidence of personality
TLDR
It is concluded that Eastern bluebirds demonstrate consistent nest defense behavior, or personality, although males are more plastic than females. Expand
Observer effects on common goldeneye nest defense
TLDR
It is shown that repeated visits to Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) nests do appear to affect nest defense, albeit in a manner somewhat different from that demonstrated by Knight and Temple (1986). Expand
Nest Defense in Blackbirds Turdus merula: Effect of Predator Distance and Parental Sex
TLDR
The dynamic risk assessment hypothesis, that is, whether Blackbirds adjust their nest defense to the distance of a predator, Black-billed Magpie Pica pica, from their nest, is tested, shows that the birds clearly discriminated between the dummies of the predatory magpie and the harmless pigeon. Expand
Parental Care Syndromes in House Sparrows: Positive Covariance Between Provisioning and Defense Linked to Parent Identity
TLDR
It is found that nestling provisioning exhibited between individual differences and positively covaried with a measure of nest defense: the propensity to attack a heterospecific nest box competitor, the European starling (Sturnis vulgaris); and that parents with nestlings that hatched earlier in the season and grew faster approached a model starling more frequently and tended to be more likely to strike the starling. Expand
Variation in Song Sparrow Nest Defense: Individual Consistency and Relationship to Nest Success
TLDR
Nest defense in 53 female Song Sparrows on Mandarte Island, British Columbia, between 1994 and 1995 was studied and individual female responses to the junco, but not the crow mount, in 1994 were significantly positively correlated with their responses in 1995. Expand
Polygyny in the tree swallowTachycineta bicolor: a result of the cost of searching for an unmated male
TLDR
It is suggested that a mate-search cost is leading to the few cases of polygamous males: in a short-lived bird with a short breeding season, the cost to females of searching for a more dedicated male is the risk of not breeding at all. Expand
Fitness consequences of male parental care in Savannah sparrows
TLDR
This research suggests that the proximate and ultimate targets of male feeding effort can be distinct; traditional assumptions regarding the function of male parental care in birds may therefore be incomplete. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 28 REFERENCES
Predator-Prey Interactions of Adult and Prefledgling Bank Swallows and American Kestrels
Predation is believed to be an important selective pressure shaping the breeding biology of many avian species (Crook 1965, Tinbergen 1965, Lack 1968, Ricklefs 1969). For hole nesters, losses of eggsExpand
Defence as parental care in tawny owls (Strix aluco)
TLDR
Individual females in pairs that defended their offspring had a lower probability of breeding the following season than did females in non-defending pairs, suggesting that parental defence is a plastic behaviour. Expand
Why Does Intensity of Avian Nest Defense Increase During the Nesting Cycle
TLDR
A new explanation is presented for the observed correlations between offspring age and level of nest defense and it is suggested that when an observer repeatedly visits or brings a potential nest predator to a nest, nest-defense behavior of parents is modified by positive reinforcement and loss of fear. Expand
Variability in the Responses of Black-Billed Magpies To Natural Predators
TLDR
It is suggested that although parental investment theory may be basically correct in predicting that young increase in value to their parent as they approach independence, a variety of other factors may affect anti-predator behavior, such as the types of predators likely to be encountered and the relative danger they pose to different age classes. Expand
The functional organization of anti-predator behaviour in the pied flycatcher: A study of avian visual perception
  • E. Curio
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Animal Behaviour
  • 1975
TLDR
It is concluded that recognition of owls, shrikes, and novel birds is innate, and two simple formalisms are proposed that can account for ‘weighted summation’ of sign stimuli with stimulus dilation being a special case. Expand
Risks and Rewards of Nest Defence by Parent Birds
TLDR
A comprehensive functional theory of nest defence based on life-history theory can help to elucidate many of the patterns observed in this important aspect of the parental care behavior of a wide variety of animals. Expand
ANTI-PREDATORY BEHAVIOR OF LAPWINGS: FIELD EVIDENCE OF DISCRIMINATIVE ABILITIES
TLDR
Discriminative abilities appear to be more sophisticated, and false alarms much less frequent, than in domestic fowl, a difference that may be related to the more open nature of the habitats used by lapwings. Expand
PREDATION AND COLONIALITY IN CLIFF SWALLOWS (PE TR 0 CHELID ON PYRRHONO TA )
TLDR
It is suggested that larger colonies may dilute the effect of local predators and thereby suffer less nestling predation on a per nest basis. Expand
Extra-pair paternity in monogamous tree swallows
TLDR
There was no relationship between the pair copulation rate and the proportion of illegitimate young in a brood, suggesting that males cannot use the number of copulations performed with their mate as a reliable cue to their share of paternity. Expand
Avian Nest Defence: Theoretical Models and Evidence
TLDR
It is concluded that life-history theory can account for most of the variability observed in nest defence patterns, and integrates previous models and generates new predictions concerning variables not previously included, namely predatory risk for both parents and offspring and age-dependent defensive tactics of nestlings. Expand
...
1
2
3
...