Causality, analyticity and an IR obstruction to UV completion

@article{Adams2006CausalityAA,
  title={Causality, analyticity and an IR obstruction to UV completion},
  author={Allan Adams and Nima Arkani-Hamed and Sergei Dubovsky and Alberto Nicolis and Riccardo Rattazzi},
  journal={Journal of High Energy Physics},
  year={2006},
  volume={2006},
  pages={014-014}
}
We argue that certain apparently consistent low-energy effective field theories described by local, Lorentzinvariant Lagrangians, secretly exhibit macroscopic non-locality and cannot be embedded in any UV theory whose S-matrix satisfies canonical analyticity constraints. The obstruction involves the signs of a set of leading irrelevant operators, which must be strictly positive to ensure UV analyticity. An IR manifestation of this restriction is that the “wrong” signs lead to superluminal… 
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