Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: theory and evidence.

@article{Peterson1984CausalEA,
  title={Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: theory and evidence.},
  author={Christopher Peterson and M. Seligman},
  journal={Psychological review},
  year={1984},
  volume={91 3},
  pages={
          347-74
        }
}
The attributional reformulation of the learned helplessness model claims that an explanatory style in which bad events are explained by internal, stable, and global causes is associated with depressive symptoms. Furthermore, this style is claimed to be a risk factor for subsequent depression when bad events are encountered. We describe a variety of new investigations of the helplessness reformulation that employ five research strategies: (a) cross-sectional correlational studies, (b… 
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